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Just basic manual pdf

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This manual describes the OASIS BASIC programming language interpreter/ re-entered to correct spelling or syntax errors, just modified to the correct form. ICTL for secondary school - just basic V module. 1. MODULE 1. INTRODUCTION TO instructions into code that the computer can understand and execute. Just BASIC free download. the help of a full tutorial and many example programs contained in this software package. aSkysoft PDF to HTML Converter .


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It is intended for educators and assumes that Just Basic is already installed on the computer. Most of this work is a summary of the tutorial to be found in the help . Just BASIC is a programming language for Windows. Create standalone Windows programs royalty free; Full tutorial and many example programs; Large . Programming: Just Basic Tutorials - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) Simple Programming with Just Basic Basic Instructions Just BASIC is a.

Style suffixes for window types not all suffixes are supported for each window type: But right now let's see how it runs! It has many of the qualities that made BASIC popular and successful as the first widely used language for computers:. Next loops. These steps must be arranged in the correct order.

What we need is a way for our program to go to the beginning and do it over. Knowing that we have to goto some place is not enough. We also need to know where to go. When you hop into your car in a foreign country looking for a food market, you at least know what you are looking for. This is a lot like a mailing address. When you send a letter or package, you mark it with a known mailing address hopefully.

There is a house or building somewhere marked with that address, and that is where your parcel goes to. So in the same way, you mark the place in your BASIC program where you want it to continue running with a branch label a mailing address of sorts. You can use any valid integer number as a branch label, or you can use an easier to remember type which uses letters. Examples of integer branch labels: Examples of alphanumeric using letters and numbers branch labels: Examples of unacceptable branch labels: For example [gettimedresponse] is valid, but [getTimedResponse] is much more readable.

So let's pick a branch label for our salestax. Since we are going to do it over again from the start, we could pick from several reasonable branch label names like perhaps [start], [begin], or [go]. We will use [start] for our program.

Let's add the branch label as shown: Now that we have our branch label, the correct format for goto is goto [start]. And here's what our program looks like when both a branch label and a goto: It runs over and over and over, right? This programming format is called an unconditional loop because it always loops back to repeat the same code no matter what.

The program we designed above will only do one thing for us, no frills. Let's learn how to add some smarts to our program. One way that this can be done is with the if.

The if. Your car's engine won't turn over 1 Check your battery for correct voltage. The steps containing the words if and then make it possible to intelligently work through a complex procedure. In the same way, the if. Let's see how we can apply this. Suppose we want the computer to give us the option to display instructions about how to use our tax program. An easy way to add this ability would be to display instructions whenever a zero value is entered as our dollar amount.

Now, whenever input is used to get a number from the user, if the user doesn't type a number but only presses the [Enter] key, then Run BASIC uses the value of the amount variable initially zero. We can exploit this feature in our sales tax program.

By checking to see if the variable equals zero after the input statement, we can decide whether or not to display instructions. Here's what our new program looks like: If the variable equals zero, then the goto[help] statement in the line is executed.

The if Actually, the goto part of the if. Either of these two forms is acceptable: We can use the if. For example, instead of checking to see if amount was equal to 0 in the above program, we could have checked to see whether it was less than 0.

We can add extra blank lines between our printed output to break things up. This is done by using an empty print statement, one for each blank line. We can also clear the window at an appropriate time with the cls statement. Both of these techniques are applied to our tax program in the listing below: In this example, we are using an input statement to halt the program, so the instructions can be read.

When [Enter] is pressed as instructed, dummyVariable receives the value of what is entered. In this case, only [Enter] is pressed, so dummyVariable gets a value of zero for its data. It really doesn't matter what dummyVariable's data is since we don't use the variable in any calculations elsewhere hence the name dummyVariable.

So far, the only kind of variables we have used are for holding number values. There are special variables for holding words and other non-numeric character combinations. Let's look at a very simple program using strings: Once you've typed it and pressed [Enter], it responds with: It's nice to meet you, your-name-here Notice one special thing about our string variable name.

This makes it a string variable. As you can see from our program example, you can both input and print with string variables, as we did earlier with our non-string or numeric variables. We've actually been using strings all along, even before this section about string variables. This is a way to directly express a string in a BASIC program, exactly the way we type numbers directly in, only with characters instead. A string literal always starts with a quotation mark and always ends with a quotation mark.

No quotation marks are allowed in between the starting and ending quotation marks point: NOTE - A string can have zero characters. Such a string is often called an empty string.

In BASIC, an empty string can be expressed in a string literal as two quotation marks without any characters between them. Just as you can manipulate numbers in a computer programming language by adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing, and more! Comparing strings - We can compare strings with each other just as we can compare numbers. This means that we can use the if.

When comparing strings, a string is considered to be equal to another string when all the characters in one string are exactly the same in both strings. This means that even if they both print the same onto the screen, they can still be unequal if one has an invisible space on the end, and the other doesn't. Now that we've covered bringing data into your programs with input, displaying data with print, keeping data in string and numeric variables, and controlling program flow with if.

Basic manual pdf just

Functions provide a means for manipulating program data in meaningful ways. Look this short program: The len function returns the number of characters in a string.

The expression inside of the parenthesis must either be a string literal, a string variable, or an expression that evaluates to be a string. This identifies len as a string function. There are other string functions for example: The result returns is a number and can be used in any mathematical expression. There are numeric functions as well. The sin function takes the value of count enclosed in parenthesis and returns the sine a function in trigonometry, a branch of mathematics for that value.

Just like the len function above, cos and other numeric functions can be used as parts of bigger expressions. We will see how this works just a little further along.

Notice also the way the program counts from 1 to Then the program prints the sine of count the sine of one, in other words. This happens over and over until count reaches a value of 45, and then it doesn't go back to [start] again, but instead having no more lines of code to run, the program stops. Going back to execute code over again is called looping.

We saw this earlier when we first used the goto statement. In our first use of goto, the program always looped back. In this newest example program we see going back to execute code over again, but based on a condition in this case whether count is less than This is called conditional looping you guessed it, the looping that always happens is called unconditional looping, or infinite looping. When writing very short and simple BASIC programs, it isn't usually difficult to grasp how they work when reading them days or even weeks later.

Pull down the File menu and select the Open item as shown. To open a program, you can also click the button on the toolbar that looks like an open file folder.

You can choose the default extension you prefer in the Setup Menu. You will see a dialog box similar to the one displayed below. Here you will find a list of files that you can load. Select the item named draw1. When it is finished compiling.

The result will look like this window. You can also run a program by clicking the button on the toolbar that looks like a blue. But right now let's see how it runs! As you learn to program in Just BASIC you will be able to extend this program and the other included samples to do what you want.

Select the Run menu and mouse click on the Run item. Now Just BASIC will take a few seconds to compile and run the drawing program some computers will take longer than others. From the Set Up menu. The Preferences Dialog: The Preferences Dialog is described in detail in the section on Editor Preferences.

Let's try drawing a little something with Just Draw! Feel free to play with Just Draw. These can be executables. Use Syntax Coloring. This file. Display execution notice. This activates a backup mechanism so that every time a program is run. Load on startup: No file. As an example. It also has some support for back-tabbing.

The user can also specify where to save these files by typing the location into the textbox provided. Starting up: Show Compile Progress Dialog. The user can press a cancel button on the dialog to abort the compile action.

Most recent file. Check this box to see color syntax in the editor. Lite Debug. This causes Just BASIC to display an execution complete notice in a program's main window if it has one when it is finished running.

Enable Auto Indenting. This toggles the editor's syntax coloring mechanism. This causes a popup dialog to appear when compiling for Run. The default is BAS. Why this is useful: Some programmers may prefer to use their favorite text editor to write code.

When this option is set. Source filename extension. This only happens on Reload File on Activate. This is especially useful to prevent filename collision if the programmer also uses other versions of BASIC or other applications that use BAS as a filename extension.

Here is a detailed description of its format descriptive comments are not part of the file information: Even the application runtime engine uses some of the information in this file if it finds the file on startup.

Press enter. Click on the "File" menu and then "New File. Your program runs and looks like this: Freeform-J is included in code form as well as in tokenized form. You can simply click and drag with the mouse to add controls to a window. You can run the tokenized version from the RUN menu. Freeform-J is open source software. When the look of the window isCHM satisfactory. You can watch as each line of code is executed to see if the variables contain the correct values.

Type in the following simple program: Also the next line of code is highlighted: Click on the "Step Into" button. Now click on the debug button. Position the two windows so that you can see them both.

The the variable x is no longer 0. While in this mode. It will not step into subroutines or functions. If the next line is inside a subroutine or function it will follow execution into the subroutine or function. Focus on this variable for this example: There are buttons for the possible debugging modes: Scroll down to the bottom of the list where the variable named x is located. You'll see that the first line of code is executed. The program runs and a special "Debugging" window also appears.

This lists your program's variables. There's a lot of information in there already because each program comes with some special variables already declared. Now focus on the debugger: This time you'll see the program running really fast. This mode causes the program to execute. Now click on the "Step Into" button again. Now click on the "Animate" button. Click a few more times on the "Step Into" button until the value of x is 3 or maybe 4.

The "Step Into" button must be pressed each time you want the program to execute a new line of code. Quickly press the "Step Into" button again to stop the program.

Notice that the value of x gets printed to the program window. The program will stop executing and you can see the current values for variables and the line that is to be executed next: Close the debugger. You should still be able to click on the "Step Into" button again before the count reaches The debugger again shows you the current state of the program. This will also close the program window.

Learn More - Just BASIC

The numbers will start printing really quickly in the program window. TKN File". TKN File" as shown: Once the file has been saved to disk. TKN application will run: Select the draw1. TKN files. A file dialog will be displayed containing a list of.

Now the. If you. No fee or royalty payment is necessary. Be sure that this option is checked. Here is a list of the files: EXE if it is present. Make sure that when your program is finished running that it terminates properly with an END statement.

If all of these files are distributed together. You must also include any other files used by your program. This is recommended. If you cannot see all of these files in "My Computer" or "Windows Explorer". The only requirements are: Otherwise your program's windows may all be closed.

Try to create a unique name so that it will be unlikely for any File Manager associations to conflict. TKN file of the same filename as the runtime engine. TKN will cause it to be automatically run when the runtime engine starts. EXE to your liking. If you want text printed to the printer to use the same printer font that is in use by the Just BASIC development environment.

INI file with your application. Search the internet and software download sites to find these programs. INI file with the distribution. You can also place all of the files into a zip archive. BAS" or 'include a complete path by enclosing the path and filename in 'double quotation marks. BAS loaded. Jbasic PROG. Reading Mouse Events and Keystrokes.

This only works with the graphicbox and with windows opened for graphics. Graphics controls handle an event called characterInput. The VK value for a letter. Reading Mouse and Keyboard Input. When a key is pressed.

They have special values. They include the arrow keys. Here is a program that gives a quick example: Pressing the 'a' key in a text window causes the letter 'a' to be displayed in the window. Most keys have a graphical representation. Special keys like Alt. Virtual Keys A virtual key is the key that is actually pressed on the keyboard. See also: Windows has values defined for these special keys.

To check for keypresses. It is necessary to use Virtual Key Codes to discover which of these keys has been pressed. There are some keys that do not have a graphical representation.

Errors when using serial communications. Here are some run-time errors: Branch label [exampleLabel] not found. There are a handful of run-time error messages which terminate program execution. File filename not found. The program tried to divide a number by zero. These usually correlate to API function call failures that occur when attempting different operations. Float divide by zero exception. You should examine the line and look for typing mistake.

Here are some compile-time errors: Syntax error. Type mismatch error. In this case. Here is a list of the error messages: An error was made specifying the font for a control controls which return this error include button. This means that you tried to use a string where a number should be used. Control type fonts are set with: Bitmap named bitmapname not found.

If you see one of these errors. The default parameters are in error The hardware is not available is locked by another device The function cannot allocate the queues The device is not open The following run-time errors are indications of more subtle problems in Just BASIC.

If you aren't sure how it happened. Don't worry. These kinds of programmer bugs result in a popup error message. For example. If you are so inclined. LOG file. There are a variety of programmer errors which can give rise to such error messages. If you can. We have a pretty good idea what it means. It can be very hard. This information is much more useful to us. We realize of course that sometimes you may not want to share your code and files for privacy reasons or because your company policy may forbid it.

LOG is and how to make use of it. To do this. Sometimes it helps us to figure out the cause of the error when we have access to the source code and other files that you were using when the error happened. LOG file? Some people have contacted us more than a little confused after looking at the contents of the this file. At other times you may see a popup error notice when running a program that you've written.

Sometimes it is necessary to reboot to eliminate this condition. The Error. Try to get theBy most recent version of the Windows drivers for your video card. This will help us to determine what is going wrong so we can tell you how to solve the trouble. There is no fix for this at this time. Another way to test for this condition is to try the standard VGA drivers that come with Windows to see if this solves the problem.

Video drivers. A major problem with environments like Windows video drivers are sometimes immature If when using Just BASIC you get an error notice that mentions the error.

Class already exists error Every once in a while someone reports experiencing a Class already exists OS Error 16r error. Consider the following equivalent. Rect as struct. To suppress the mainwin. All programs should finish executing with an END statement like the example above to ensure that programs actually do clean up by themselves. If a program continues running with no way to close it.

It is important that a program have trapclose handlers for all of its windows when the nomainwin command is used.

If a program locks up or crashes. It can be used to display text and to ask the user for input. Here is an example that uses a function: For more on passing byref.

They are in fact different variables. This means that by default. Variables passed into subroutines may be passed by reference. The program can use a function which also contains a variable named "counter" in its code. When the function is used.. Branch Labels. The special system variables lWindowWidth.

By default and without any direct instruction by the programmer. This means that if a subroutine or function so declares. Passing Arguments into Subroutines and Fuctions.

Programming: Just Basic Tutorials

Things with handles files. Variables inside functions and subroutines are not visible in the main program. Branch labels inside functions and subroutines are not visible to code outside those functions and subroutines. We can pass variables by reference. If the value is changed in the called subroutine or function. If code in the main program tries to access a branch label inside a function or subroutine.

Passing by reference is only done when the. BYREF keyword is used. Example of passing by value This example shows how passing by value works.

You can pass a numeric or string literal. Try stepping through this example in the debugger. This means that when the value of a and b are changed in the function that the variables used to make the call x and y will also be changed to reflect a and b when the function returns. Step through the example in the debugger to see how it works! The numbers don't change the order of the code.

Here are some valid branch labels: The above program doesn't really need branch labels. Functions and Subroutines. It looks like this without them: The following two short programs are essentially the same: See GOTO. GOTO To continue program execution at a specified branch lable. END IF structure. The IF. Here is an example of its usefulness N ovice or e X pert?

THEN statement provides a way to change program flow based on a test expression. This extended form of IF THEN adds expressiveness and simplifies coding of some logical decision-making software.

Boolean Evaluations.. ELSE statement. For example.. There are two blocks in this example. These conditional blocks can be nested inside each other: The format looks like the following silly example: It is also possible to use the ELSE keyword as well with blocks: Only one of the two blocks will be executed never both as a result of the same test.

Pdf manual just basic

There is one block in the example above. END IF is another form using what are called conditional blocks. It must be replaced with the correct expression to suit the problem. Here is an example using elseif QBasic: For more.

It is followed by the name variable that will be evaluated. The syntax for Select Case is: Code after the "case" statement is executed if that particular case evaluates to TRUE. There is no limit to the number of conditions that can be used for evaluation. The variable can be a numeric variable or a string variable. Example usage: It is a good alternative when many possible conditions must be evaluated and acted upon.

CASE value. In the following example. String example: To omit the expression. A binary number consists of one or more digits. Computers use binary numbers. Bitwise operations modify the pattern of bits in an object.

Each column contains a "bit". Here is an evaluation: If the value of x is 1. Since the example shows that b is equal to 5. If the value of x is 7. A boolean value is either true or false. Since both of these conditions are true. In the example. Bitwise Operations.

NEXT looping construct provides a way to execute code a specific amount of times. Do not attempt to exit a loop prematurely by issuing a "goto" statement.

Next loops. A starting and ending value are specified: Wend loops. The specified range could just as easily be 2 TO In loops.. STEP can be used with both positive and and negative numbers and it is not limited to integer values. For more on While. For more on For. It will continue looping back and executing the code as long as the booleanExpr evaluates to true.

The two examples below contains an "IF. THEN" evaluation that. When it does this it makes a copy of itself. Here is an example of a subroutine which counts down from a number. A factorial is obtained by taking a number and multiplying it in turn by each integer less than itself. Care should be taken to avoid creating an endlessly looping recursive function.

This means that a function can call itself. The numbers get big in a hurry after this. The values are not overwritten. It also specifies a routine to serve as an event handler.

Here is a short example: The timer may be turned off and then back on. Most PCs have a timer with a resolution of approximately 56 milliseconds which ticks 18 times a second. The timer allows the addition of a clock to a program. One second is milliseconds. There are other uses as well. Here are two literals. There is no practical limit to the length of a variable name. The second is a string of text characters. Variables Previous Top Next See also: Numeric Variables.

The variable names are uppercase and lowercase sensitive. In this example. The first is a number. String Literals and Variables. The value assigned to the variable name may change as the program runs. A variable name can start with any letter and it can contain both letters and numerals.

The program can always access the current value of the variable by refering to its name. The special system variables like WindowWidth. Arrays are dimensioned with the DIM statement. These can be defined as string or numeric arrays. The extents of the dimensions can be in excess of 2 million elements. To access the value of an element in an array. The element is referred to by its index number. The element at index 2 in the following example is filled with "John.

The index may be expressed as a literal number or as a numeric variable. It is still necessary to READ data into a variable. To simulate an array of 10 by 10 by CHM 7. These methods can be used to put data into arrays.

A DATA statement doesn't actually perform an action when it is encountered in the program's code. The READ statement will fetch enough items to fill the variable names that the programmer specifies.

The values fetched will be converted to fit the variables listed string or numeric. To fill arrays with DATA items. It cannot be READ directly into arrays. Notice that in the examples above. If an end tag or flag of some sort is not used. This is an excellent way to prevent errors from occuring. Sequential Files. Binary Files. Files can be renamed with the NAME command. Binary Files Files opened for binary access may be read or written. When a file is being read.

Random Files Files opened for random access are read or written one record at a time. For detailed information on using binary files. The length of a file can be retrieved with the LOF function. It is not possible to read or write a piece of data to the center of the file. For detailed information on using random files see Random Access Files.

Random Access Files. String and Numeric Data All data. The length of records in the file is determined in the OPEN statement. Sequential files are opened with the OPEN statement. When they are no longer needed, or when the program ends, they must be closed with the CLOSE statement.

Sequential file access allows data to be read from a file or written to a file from beginning to end. Each subsequent input statement reads the next piece of data in the file. They cannot be written to. See Testing For File Existence. Example Program: INPUT item is: If the file does exist on disk, the previous contents will be overwritten, and therefore lost. The carriage return may be suppressed by ending the line of code with a semi-colon.

Writing data to the file works in the same way when a file is opened for APPEND as when it is opened for OUTPUT, but rather than overwriting data contained in the file, the new data is appended to the end of the file, but does not overwrite data previously written to the file the last time it was opened as open for OUTPUT does. File Copy A file may be copied using sequential file operations. Both files are then closed. Here is an example: To access a file in binary mode, it must be opened with the OPEN statement.

When it is no longer needed, and before the program ends, it must be closed with the CLOSE statement. Filedialog , File Operations , Path and Filename. In binary access mode, bytes are written to the file or read from the file as characters. Use the SEEK command to seek to the desired point in the file for reading or writing. This sets the file pointer to the location specified. Use the LOC handle function to retrieve the current position of the file pointer.

The current position of the file pointer is used when reading or writing data to a binary file. Binary mode never writes line delimiters when printing to the file. The entire file is divided into many records.

Each record has the same length. The length is specified when the file is opened with the LEN parameter. The example below opens a file called "members. OPEN "members. A record may be read or written anywhere in the file. A record is written to the file with the PUT statement. These statements are explained in more detail below.

Each field is designated by a variable name and given a specified length. When the lengths of all fields are added together, their sum must be equal to the length that was set with the LEN parameter in the OPEN statement. In the above case, the field lengths must total The fields for "members.

If the length of a variable in a given field is shorter than the field length specified, blank spaces are added to pad it. If the length of the variable is larger, it will be truncated to the length specified in the FIELD statement. Here is a short user-defined function which can be used to test if a file exists on disk. It is important to know if a file exists because attempting to access a nonexistent file can cause a program to crash. I need more power!

Complete Path and Filename References to a complete path and filename indicate that the drive letter and all folders and sub folders are included in the file specification. DocumentsProgramsbas Filename Alone.

An example is as follows: Filenames are usually designated by including a dot and a file extension that specifies the type of file. Filenames ending in ". Folders do not typically have extensions. The names below with extensions indicate files, while the names without extensions indicate folders. Here are some examples of relative paths: Hard-coding Path and Filename The phrase "hard-coding" when referring to path and filename information indicates that the pathname specified in the progarm code contains the entire file specification, including the drive letter and all folder information as well as the filename.

If a program is meant for use by the programmer alone, on a single computer, this method works, as long as no changes are made to the directory structure. When any changes are made to the directory structure or filename, the program code must be changed as well. Caveat It is very unlikely that other users of a program will have the same directory structure on their computers as the programmer who writes the code.

For this reason, it is best to use one of the other path naming options listed above that does not depend upon all users having the same directory structure on their computers. Filenames Used in Code Some commands that use path and filename specifications are: Functions that require a numeric input can also use any of these forms, as long as the expression evaluates to a number.

Here is the ABS function used as an example: Arithmetic Arithmetic operators are as follows: Order Expressions are evaluated in this order:. A floating point value will be converted to an integer if its fractional part is zero when it is assigned to a variable. When first referenced, numeric variables equal 0.

Values are assigned to variables with the equals sign. Adding 8 to it in the next line gives it a value of Negative numbers. Just BASIC does not support changing the sign of a variable directly by preceding it with a negative sign "". The special system variables like WindowWidth, WindowHeight, etc. This function returns the square root of the number or numeric expressioin n.

This function returns n the absolute value of n. This function returns the natural log of n. This function removes the fractional part of number. Numbers such as 0. The function will always return an arbitrary number between 0 and 1.

This function returns a random number between 0 and 1. The number parameter is usually set to 1. This function seeds the random number generator in a predictable way. The seed numbers must be greater than 0 and less than 1. Trigonometry Previous Top Next Tip: The return value is expressed in radians. A formula to convert degrees to radians is: This function returns the arc tangent of the number or numeric expression n.

This function returns the arc sine of the number or numeric expression n. This function returns the arc cosine of the number or numeric expression n. This function returns the cosine of the angle n. The angle n should be expressed in radians. This function returns the sine of the angle n. The angle n should be expressed in radians Usage: This function returns a string expressing the result of numericExpression. If not.

If there are more digits contained in a number than allowed for by the template string. This function formats numericExpression as a string using templateString. The template string must be contained within double quotation marks.

A template string looks like this: VAL stringExpression Description: The template string consists of the character " " to indicate placement for numerals. The following two examples produce the same result: Some forms return a string. Text and Characters Previous Top Next This section of the help system explains the use and manipulation of text as literal strings of characters or as string variables.

It also details commands for text windows and text editors. Hello World String Variables There are special variables for holding words and other non-numeric character combinations. String Literals and Variables Previous Top Next Literal Strings A string literal always starts with a quotation mark and always ends with a quotation mark. Any other special symbols like: Letters of the alphabet. Such a string is often called an empty string. No quotation marks are allowed in between the starting and ending quotation marks.

Hello World. A string can have zero characters. Here is an example that prints a string literal in the mainwin. In the case of a CRLF as described here. The following code inserts a carriage return.

To cause a double quotation mark to print. A combination of carriage return and line feed causes text printed after it to display on the next line down. It is also possible to use the semi-colon. If the starting parameter is included. If string2 occurs more than once in string1.

This function returns the position of string2 within string1. This function returns a one character long string. This function returns the length in characters of string. If number is 0. If number is zero or less. If number is greater than or equal to the number of characters in string.

If string is "hello there". This function returns a sequence of characters from the right hand side of string using number to determine how many characters to return. This function permits the extraction of a sequence of characters from string starting at index. If number is not specified. Earth And: If number is specified. This function returns a copy of the contents of string.

This can be useful for cleaning up data entry among other things. It is useful when producing formatted output to a file or printer. By default. The next time data is displayed. It is also possible to write rudimentary text mode programs. Here is a simple example: What's your name? To prevent the cursor from moving immediately to the next line. This prevents the cursor from being moved down a line when the expressions are displayed. Here is how to set 40 columns and 20 rows: In the simple form input limit.

If it is necessary to obtain input without a prompt and without a question mark. Please enter the upper limit? Commas contained within quotation marks do not signal new columns. Here is a short demo: These coordinates refer to the column and row of text.

Anything printed to a text window is displayed exactly as sent. To distinguish commands sent to a text window from text that is to be diplayed in the window. It is also possible to omit the word "print" and to omit the comma after the handle when printing to a text window or texteditor. They are used to force carriage returns when printing text.

Understanding Syntax. This means that the word "print" and the comma following the handle are optional. Using variables in text commands: Literal values are placed inside the quotation marks: When printing text. The semicolon at the end of a printed command is now optional. BAT" for text as aetext open "C: BAT" for input as autoexec print aetext. This command clears the text window of all text. This command has two forms as described above.

This second form is useful for reading large text files quickly into the window. Here is an example of the second form: Here are the text window commands: Most of the commands listed below work with windows of type "text" and also with the "texteditor" control except where noted.