Kip Thorne (Physicist). • Jonathan Nolan (screenwriter). • Christopher Nolan ( director). Closely involved in the script to make sure the science is as plausible as. Editorial Reviews. Review. "Eric Michael Summerer is an excellent choice for the narration of this challenging text." AudioFile. About the Author. Kip Thorne is. The Science of Interstellar to download this book the link is on the last page Yet in The Science of Interstellar, Kip Thorne, the Nobel.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Hindi|
|Genre:||Science & Research|
|ePub File Size:||23.33 MB|
|PDF File Size:||20.38 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Regsitration Required]|
A Steve Jobs keynote presentation is an extraordinary expe- rience, and he. a passionate perfectionist and a visionary Beginning English Conversation. Kip Thorne Pasadena, California May 15, THE SCIENCE OF INTERSTELLAR. my friend Carl Sagan phoned me. I never imagined myself helping create. Yet in The Science of Interstellar, Kip Thorne, the Nobel prize-winning physicist who assisted Nolan on the scientific aspects of Interstellar.
From its details. Feldman got excited. Published in: More precisely. Fred was proved wrong. If Gargantua were spinning faster than the maximum. The phase where you.
This is enough for me. Scientists do not yet know how to deduce. The blights encountered by humans thus far have not jumped from infecting one type of plant to another with such speed as to endanger human life. The biology that underlies these blights is based on chemistry. Entertainment Inc. That it might someday occur is a speculation that most biologists regard as very unlikely. Burning blighted corn. Although experimental physicists when measuring gravity have searched hard for anomalies—behaviors that cannot be explained by the Newtonian or.
So is harnessing the anomalies to lift colonies off Earth Chapter That such a blight is possible is an educated guess. But they are a speculation based on science that I and some of my physicist friends are happy to entertain—at least late at night over beer. In reality. And we have no idea whether the bulk. We are far from sure that the bulk really exists. And it is only an educated guess that. Our universe. The anomalies and their harnessing are a rather extreme speculation. So they fall within the guidelines I advocated for Interstellar: For details see Chapter Throughout this book.
I explain the status of that science—truth. Chapters 14 and 5. But around it was revolutionarily upended by a tiny observed anomaly in the orbit of Mercury around the Sun Chapter For nineteenth-century physicists. Can you identify in your own life speculations that became educated guesses and then truth? Have you ever seen your established truths upended. He once described to me lying in a warm bath for hours on end.
Revolutions that upend established scientific truth are exceedingly rare. They are so huge that they warp space and time enormously and randomly. Of course. But when they happen. For Cooper. This slowing of time near a black hole plays a major role in Interstellar. Cooper despairs of ever seeing his daughter Murph again. Vessot found that time on the ground flows more slowly than at a height of The accuracy improved in At the surface of a black hole.
Time flows more slowly in the basement than in the penthouse by trillionths of a second each day. Their experiment was exquisitely accurate: The greater the slowing of time. On the surface of a neutron star. Everything likes to live where it will age the most slowly. On Earth. Finally in he had a brilliant inspiration.
Will Basic Books. Putting General Relativity to the Test. Atomic clocks measure slowing of time on Earth. Typically only four to twelve satellites can be seen at once from any location on Earth. Knowing the. Each radio signal from a viewable satellite tells the smart phone where the satellite is located and the time the signal was transmitted.
This is one of many examples where his insights about the laws of physics could not be tested in his own day. Among other examples are the laser. It required a half century for technology to improve enough for a test with high precision.
The global positioning system. Time at a Perhaps the greatest scientist ever. They measure time with their own clocks.
Einstein was a genius. This scheme would fail if the signal transmission times were the true times measured on the satellite. In —77 they transmitted radio signals to two spacecraft in orbit around Mars. But despite the most intense mental struggle of his life. The Warping of Space: At first. As the Earth and Mars moved around the Sun in their orbits.
From to late he struggled. The spacecraft. Finally in November It did not. Travel time for radio signals from Earth to Viking to Earth. When the radio waves passed near the Sun. The extra travel time is shown. If space were flat. This motivates the way we physicists think about our full universe. From the extra time delay and how it changed as the spacecraft moved relative to Earth. Around a neutron star.
Our universe has three space dimensions east-west. Reasenberg and Shapiro inferred the shape of the space warp. In Figure 4. How many dimensions does the bulk have? I discuss this carefully in Chapter The shape that the team measured.
This greater length would be impossible if space were flat. Figure 4. It bends downward inside and near the Sun.
Around a black hole. More precisely. Inside what does it bend? It bends inside a higher-dimensional hyperspace. Let's make that more precise. So throughout this book I draw pictures of our brane and bulk with one dimension removed. Black holes and wormholes extending out of our brane into and through the bulk. In Interstellar. One space dimension is removed. The warping of space warping of our brane plays a huge role in Interstellar. Three are the space dimensions of our own universe or brane east-west.
For example. As usual. Does the bulk really exist? Is there truly a fifth dimension. The fourth is time. It is a fanciful drawing by my artist friend Lia Halloran. Very likely yes. And it distorts the sky around the wormhole and around the black hole Gargantua.
The green paths. The two purple paths headed into the black hole begin parallel to each other. The picture of the hole is extracted from Lia. As each path tries to remain straight. Four paths for planetary motion in the vicinity of a black hole. The warping of space and time drives them together. But in this case. It describes the details of the warping of space and time. I draw a woman lying on a red tendex line. It stretches her. The purple paths begin. We found. The green paths begin. Several years ago.
Tendex lines around a black hole. In Isaac Newton discovered them in his own theory of gravity and used them to explain ocean tides. This stretching and squeezing is just a different way of thinking about the influence of the warping of space and time. From one viewpoint. From another viewpoint it is the tendex lines that do the stretching and squeezing. Newton reasoned. Stars and planets and moons also produce them. Black holes are not the only objects that produce stretching and squeezing forces.
And indeed they do. What the Earth does feel is the red-arrowed lunar pulls in the left half of Figure 4. This is qualitatively the same as around a black hole Figure 4. To extremely high accuracy. They must be the same. It is remarkable that a warping so tiny can produce forces big enough to cause the ocean tides! Because of their role in ocean tides. As the Earth turns on its axis. We now have three points of view on tidal forces: Relativistic viewpoint on tides: Scientists and engineers spend most of their lives trying to solve puzzles.
Having three different viewpoints on the same phenomenon can be extremely valuable. Or it may be figuring out how black holes behave. This is what Professor Brand does. Peering at the puzzle first from one viewpoint and then from another can often trigger new ideas. Einstein realized that if he were to fall. The puzzle may be how to design a spacecraft. Whatever the puzzle may be. If your universe were flat. Now some explanation. The rubber sheet is your entire universe. Black holes are made from warped space and warped time.
Nothing else—no matter whatsoever. To determine its shape. Your universe. Ant on a Trampoline: A heavy rock bends the rubber downward. But the circumference. An ant on a warped trampoline. This is a two- dimensional surface. Figure 5. As seen from the bulk. Take an equatorial slice through the black hole.
The warped space inside and around a black hole. In fact. Not so. In chapters For the trampoline. If this seems a. This warping-begets-warping scenario does not happen in our solar system hardly at all.
Event Horizon and Warped Time When you first hear mention of a black hole. And for a black hole. Throughout our solar system the space warps are so weak that their energy is minuscule.
Just as it requires a lot of energy to bend a stiff bow in preparation for shooting an arrow. Warping begets warping in a nonlinear. Because one space dimension is removed from this diagram. See Chapter 28 for how this plays out in Interstellar.
I am a two-dimensional Kip. Nobody above the horizon can ever see the signals I send after I cross the horizon. My signals and I are trapped inside the black hole.
And any signals I try to transmit in any manner whatsoever get pulled down with me. A spinning hole drags space around it into a vortex-type. Everything is drawn inexorably toward the future.
If I hover above the black hole. Like the air in a tornado. At the horizon itself. Near the horizon there is no way whatsoever to protect oneself against this whirling drag. I must experience an infinitely strong gravitational pull. Space Whirl Black holes can spin. That downward flow. What happens inside the event horizon? Time is so extremely warped there that it flows in a direction you would have thought was spatial: The warped shape of the surface in Figure 5.
Space around a spinnning black hole is dragged into whirling motion. At the transition from yellow to red. Precise depiction of the warped space and time around a rapidly spinning black hole: The warping in Figure 5. If we were to restore the third space dimension. The white arrows depict the rate at which space whirls around the black hole.
For the singularity. This is the event horizon. And at the black circle. It is a circle. At the transition from blue to green. From its details. The whirl is fast at the horizon. The colors depict the slowing of time as measured by someone who hovers at a fixed height above the horizon. We humans are confined to our brane. The black-hole funnels and whirlpools so often shown in movies.
The space whirl gives them a boost. In Chapter 8 I talk more about this and other aspects of what a black hole really looks like. The black hole casts a black shadow on the field of stars behind it. Over the decades since Roy Kerr. In The resulting black hole is made entirely from warped space and time. Kerr a New Zealand mathematician did the same for a spinning black hole: The most beautiful example is a massive black hole at the center of our Milky Way galaxy.
Along each orbit. Black holes surely do exist. Astronomers have seen compelling evidence for many black holes in our universe. So if black holes exist at all in our universe. No matter is left behind. Its gravitational pull.
Schwarzschild deduced the details of the warped spacetime around a nonspinning black hole. Computer simulations reveal the full details. Karl Schwarzschild. None whatsoever. It is to the lower right of the constellation Sagittarius.
The heaviest yet measured is 17 billion times more massive than the Sun. Robert Oppenheimer — Left to right: Karl Schwarzschild — Stephen W. Black-hole scientists. Many of these are as heavy as Gargantua million Suns. Fig 5. Hawking —. Roy Kerr —. Observed orbits of stars around the massive black hole at the center of our Milky Way galaxy. Now armed with a basic understanding of the universe.
We humans would survive for no more than a year or so! Astronomers estimate that the nearest black hole to Earth is roughly light- years away: If there were. So black holes are ubiquitous in our universe.
Inside our own galaxy. A giant black hole resides there. From that census. The Earth would be thrown close to the Sun where it boils. You cannot go backward in time at some fixed location.
More on this in Chapter It is as though knowing my weight and how fast I can run. Let's see how this works. So different from everyday experience. This is amazing. John Wheeler my mentor. At so close a distance.
If Gargantua were less massive than that. Working through the details. In all my science interpretations of what happens in Interstellar. I assume that. I discovered that. But Gargantua has to spin awfully fast.
I was shocked. And as he hovers. Because of the extreme warping of space inside the black hole. There is a maximum spin rate that any black hole can have. I assume this spin. I assume this mass in Chapter If it spins faster than that maximum.
After consulting with me.
The crew of the Endurance could measure the spin rate directly by watching from far. I went home. If Gargantua were spinning faster than the maximum. TARS would whip around faster than the speed of light. You can do the math yourself: This is a heuristic way to understand why there is a maximum possible spin for any black hole.
I discovered a mechanism by which Nature protects black holes from. To make a great film. As in the previous chapter. This is like Figure 5. In the top picture in Figure 6. The whirl of space around the hole grabs those photons that travel in the same direction as the hole spins and flings them away. I focused on a disk of gas. The region near the horizon. In science fantasy films such as Harry Potter.
This equilibrium appears to be somewhat robust. In my discovery. Friction in the disk makes the gas gradually spiral into the black hole. This is common in movies. Interstellar is science fiction. In most astrophysical environments I expect black holes to spin no faster than about 0. But the hole easily captures things that orbit opposite to its spin and that.
Friction also heats the gas. I can imagine situations—very rare or never in the real universe. In science fiction. It extends much farther downward before reaching the horizon. The length of the cylindrical region is about two horizon circumferences. When it gets close to the maximum spin. Chapter For Gargantua. This motivated my choice of five Gargantua radii yellow circle in Figure 6.
I only put the outer part at Gargantua radii instead of as I should. Gargantua would look huge. Truly awe inspiring. At this distance. But there was a problem with this choice. How did I come up with these locations? I use the parking orbit as an illustration here and discuss the others later. When a black hole is spun up. Cooper describes the parking orbit this way: The Shell of Fire Gravity is so strong near Gargantua. So Chris and Paul chose to make Gargantua look much smaller at the parking orbit: The trapped light travels around and around this sphere on great circles like the lines of constant longitude on the Earth.
Chapter 19 that I had to redraw the picture on a much larger scale to fit it in bottom picture. In the movie. For a nonspinning black hole.
These trapped orbits are unstable in the sense that the photons always escape from them. The annular region around Gargantua.
I omit the warping of space from this picture. It is nearly the same as the bottom inner red orbit in Figures 6. The black hole is at the center of each of these orbits. The next orbit in Figure 6. The leftmost orbit winds around and around the equatorial region of a small sphere.
What a huge effect the space whirl has! The region of space occupied by the shell of fire above and below the equatorial plane is depicted in Figure 6. Figure 6. It is a large. The bottom red circle is a light ray a photon orbit that moves around and around Gargantua in the same direction as Gargantua spins the forward direction.
The fourth is very nearly equatorial and backward. For more on this. The rest escape spiraling inward. These orbits are actually inside each other. I pulled them apart so they are easier to see. Some photons that are temporarily trapped in the shell of fire escape outward. The third orbit is larger still. And when it reaches the vicinity of the planet. This means it must move at very high speed. Near the speed of light. In my science interpretation of Interstellar.
To survive. What mechanism can Cooper. Twenty-First-Century Technology The required changes of velocity. I imagine that Cooper and his team make a survey of all the small black holes orbiting Gargantua. In Figure 7. Deceleration is necessary because.
I can swing around that neutron star to decelerate. The fastest that human spacecraft are likely to achieve in the twenty-first century. Nature provides a way to achieve the huge speed changes. This slingshot maneuver is not seen or discussed in Interstellar. I think. In my science interpretation of the movie. The Ranger performs a slingshot maneuver around a small black hole. For the Ranger and humans to survive. At those close distances.
When an IMBH passes through such a dense region. One black hole. Some IMBHs are thought to form in the cores of dense clusters of stars called globular clusters. In this manner. The wake pulls on the IMBH gravitationally.
Nature could provide Cooper. These are the deflectors Cooper needs. An example is Andromeda. Chris chose the neutron star. They are called intermediate- mass black holes. Recognizing that strong gravitational slingshots are needed to navigate near Gargantua. Huge numbers of stars are drawn into the vicinity of such gigantic black holes. After our discussion. The Andromeda galaxy, which harbors a Gargantua-sized black hole.
The dynamical friction by which an IMBH will gradually slow down and sink into the vicinity of the gigantic black hole. The orbits of planets and comets in our solar system are all ellipses to very high accuracy Figure 7. Figure 7. For this orbit, each trip around Gargantua would require a few hours to a few days, so the entire pattern in Figure 7. After a few years, the orbit would pass near most any destination you might wish, though the speed at which you arrive might not be right.
A slingshot might be needed to change speed and make a rendezvous. A single orbit of a spacecraft or planet or star around a gigantic, fast-spinning black hole such as Gargantua. It was launched from Earth on October 15, , with too little fuel to reach its. The deficit was dealt with by slingshots: The trajectory of Cassini from Earth to Saturn. None of these slingshots looked like the ones I described above. For Venus,. Earth, and Io, the deflection was inevitably small because their gravity is intrinsically weak.
Jupiter has much stronger gravity, but a large deflection would have sent Cassini in the wrong direction; reaching Saturn required a small deflection. Despite the small deflections, Cassini got substantial kicks from the flybys, big enough to compensate for inadequate fuel.
In Interstellar, the Endurance does a similar slingshot around Mars. For a glimpse, see http: Even a light ray. This produces gravitational lensing, the key to seeing Gargantua. Black holes emit no light, so the only way to see Gargantua is by its influence on light from other objects. In Interstellar the other objects are an accretion disk Chapter 9 and the galaxy in which it lives including nebulae and a rich field of stars.
Gargantua casts a black shadow on the field of stars and it also deflects the light rays from each star, distorting the stellar pattern that the camera sees. This distortion is the gravitational lensing discussed in Chapter 3. Figure 8. Outside that ring we see a dense sprinkling of stars with a pattern of concentric shells, a pattern produced by the gravitational lensing.
The gravitationally lensed pattern of stars around a rapidly spinning black hole such as Gargantua. This motion combined with the lensing produces dramatically changing patterns of light. In this chapter I explain all these features, beginning with the shadow and its ring of fire. Then I describe how the black-hole images in Interstellar were actually produced. The shell of fire is responsible for merging the rays side by side and directing them toward your eyes.
The white light rays A and B and others like them bring you the image of the ring of fire. Not to worry! See the last section in Chapter 9. The shell of fire is the purple region surrounding Gargantua in Figure 8.
The white ray brings you an image of a bit of the thin ring. The explanations in the following three sections may require a lot of thought.
Gargantua central spheroid. Black rays C and D in Figure 8. White rays C and D not shown. Lensing by a Nonspinning Black Hole. Similarly for the white and black rays B. The trapped orbit for ray D is shown in the upper right inset. The warped space around a nonspinning black hole as seen from the bulk. The two images. The gravitationally lensed pattern of stars that is seen by the camera. Each ray brings the camera its own image of the star. To understand the pattern of gravitationally lensed stars outside the shadow and their streaming as the camera moves.
Two light rays travel from the star to the camera. I put red circles around them to distinguish them from all the other stars the camera sees. The star images outside the Einstein ring the primary images. One is circled in red the same star circled in Figure 8. Each of the other stars appears twice in the picture. The other is inside a yellow diamond. This figure highlights two particular stars.
Can you figure out why the deflection is away from the hole instead of toward it? As the camera moves rightward in its orbit Figure 8.
We see two images of each star: Can you identify some of the pairs? The changing star pattern seen by the camera as it moves rightward in its orbit in Figure 8. Earlier in time. They appear to emerge from the right edge of the shadow. The right ray passes near the black hole. You can understand this by going back to the upper drawing in Figure 8. The star streaming patterns as seen by a camera near a rapidly spinning black hole such as Gargantua.
The whirl has also produced eddies in the streaming the closed red curves. For Gargantua the streaming Figure 8. Lensing by a Rapidly Spinning Black Hole: Outside the outer ring. The secondary image of each star appears between the two Einstein rings.
Each secondary image circulates along a closed curve for example. The star patterns in Figure 8. This despite the fact that the actual direction from camera to center of Gargantua is leftward and upward. They actually do circulate around closed curves for a nonspinning hole. The tenth image is very near the left edge of the shadow and the right secondary image is near the right edge. Inside the inner Einstein ring. Take note: The actual direction to the star is upward and rightward see outer ends of the red rays.
You can get a lot of insight into the gravitational lensing by walking yourself through these pictures.
The camera is moving counterclockwise around Gargantua. The stars in this region are tertiary and higher-order images of all the stars in the universe—the same stars as appear as primary images outside the outer Einstein ring and secondary images between the Einstein rings. The camera and beginning of each ray point toward the stellar image. In Figure 8. The light ray brings to the camera the stellar image that is at the tip of the blue arrow.
These are analogs of the star Polaris. Oliver and I talked by phone and Skype. Paul put me in touch with the Interstellar team he had assembled at his London-based visual- effects studio. I wound up working closely with Oliver James. Double Negative. Light rays that bring images of the stars at the tips of the blue arrows. And it was fun. So initially I planned to put Oliver in touch with Alain and Andrew and ask them to provide him the input he needed.
These equations compute the trajectories of light rays that begin at some light source. During my half century physics career I put great effort into making new discoveries myself and mentoring students as they made new discoveries.
We began with a nonspinning black hole and a nonmoving camera. I asked myself. Andrew had generated black-hole movies shown in planetariums around the world. And to my surprise. I knew more or less how to do this. I cheered. Several of my physicist colleagues had already done computer simulations of what one would see when orbiting a black hole and even falling into one. At this point. My code was very slow and had low resolution.
I then wrote up detailed descriptions of my equations and sent them to Oliver in London. The best experts were Alain Riazuelo. I implemented them myself. And so I went for it. Having derived the equations. From those light rays. Oliver and I did this in steps. I lived uncomfortably with that decision for several days. So I searched the technical literature and found that in Serge Pineault and Rob Roeder at the University of Toronto had derived the necessary equations in almost the form I needed.
And then we switched to a camera around a wormhole. Oliver hit me with a minibombshell: To model some of the more subtle effects. I worked out the equations Oliver needed. Why not. We plan to publish one or more technical papers. I brought their equations into precisely the needed form.
For me. So I used my equations and Mathematica to simulate them and produce images. This is the slingshot described in Figure 7. At last his code could produce the quality images needed for the movie.
At Double Negative.
For further discussion. In the meantime. Her team then added the Endurance and Rangers and landers and the camera animation its changing motion. Imaging a Gravitational Slingshot Although Chris chose not to show any gravitational slingshots in Interstellar. Gravitational slingshot around an IMBH. As the IMBH appears to move rightward.
As impressive as these images may be. Gargantua is in the background with the IMBH passing in front of it. In the bottom picture. By this time the slingshot is nearly complete.
To astronomers on Earth. These two images are completely analogous to the primary and secondary images of a star gravitationally lensed by a black hole. The IMBH grabs light rays from distant stars that are headed toward gargantua. Show related SlideShares at end.
WordPress Shortcode. Vargasdeto Follow. Published in: Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Be the first to like this.
No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. The Science of Interstellar to download this book the link is on the last page 2. Interstellar, from acclaimed filmmaker Christopher Nolan, takes us on a fantastic voyage far beyond our solar system. Thorne shares his experiences working as the science adviser on the film and then moves on to the science itself. Entertainment Inc. Book Details Author: Kip Thorne Pages: Paperback Brand: Book Appearances 5.
You just clipped your first slide!