Core HTML5 Canvas: Graphics, Animation, and Game Development. Home · Core Canvas Pocket Reference: Scripted Graphics for HTML5 · Read more. Core HTML5 Canvas. Graphics, Animation, and Game. Development. David Geary. Upper Saddle River, NJ • Boston • Indianapolis • San Francisco. New York . Core HTML5 2D game programming / David Geary. pages cm. Includes index. .. Draw Graphics and Images with the HTML5 canvas Element .
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Download Animation Development: The result is awesome. Over a million developers have joined DZone. Nice and simple. This is why setInterval is called when the page loads. Practical, expert guidance for building more sophisticated web applications with richer user experiences Covers threading, Web Workers, client-side storage, Ajax, web sockets, the canvas, animations, media, drag-and-drop, and more The classic, proven Core Series approach: Text Functions font - gets or sets the font for the current context.
Check out this page for all the methods that I haven't covered in this section. Here are the related functions available to draw rectangles. To draw a rectangle, the easiest way is to use fillRect.
This draws a rectangle on the canvas using the current fillStyle. Here's how to create a black rectangle. This code will render a black rectangle, starting at 5 pixels from the top, 5 pixels from the right, and pixels in width and height.
The image below displays the rectangle in the canvas. To draw another rectangle on top, call fillRect again with different parameters. Drawing circles is a breeze too. To draw a cirlce, the easiest way is to use arc.
This draws a circle on the canvas using the current fillStyle. The function's definition is below. Because arc adds points to the subpath, you must called beginPath first then call fill afterwards.
This fills in the subpaths with the current fillStyle. The image below displays the result. To draw the outline of a circle, use strokeStyle instead of fillStyle. Then call stroke instead of fill.
This tough task is made relatively simple by using the bezierCurveTo function. The parameters for bezierCurveTo are below. A Bezier curve must include three points. The first two points control the calculation, and the third point is the ending point for the curve. To complement the shapes capable on the canvas, you can also mix up the colours either by a solid colour, outline, gradient or pattern. This function fills the background of the context with a solid colour.
This can be a multitude of colours.
The following example will randomise the background colour of the canvas and produces a rainbow effect. If you don't want solid colours, you can use strokeStyle and strokeRect to draw the outline of a rectangle. Another feature of canvas gives to the ability to create gradients.
The related function for this are below. A linear gradient can be created by calling createLinearGradient. To add colour to the gradient you call addColorStop. Calling this adds the specified colour at the x and y coordinates. The following example demonstrates a simple linear gradient.
There's a lot more on gradients that I haven't covered. For the full picture you should check out the W3C website here. Each canvas has a path. Defining a path is like drawing a line. Any line is possible. Just like writing, you need to define a path, and then fill the path in. Here are some of the related properties and functions for drawing lines. To draw lines you call moveTo and lineTo.
These function accept x and y parameters which tell it exactly where you want to draw the line. You can also specify the width of the line by settings the lineWidth.
Once you've defined the line, you need to call stroke to draw the line. To add some pizzazz to the lines, you can also change what's known as the cap, or the end shape of the line by setting the lineCap property. To create a rounded edge, I can set the lineCap to round.
As well as lines, text is simple to draw on a canvas element.
Unlike text on a web page, there's no box model, which means the CSS that you're familiar with is not available. But you do have options. Some of the related properties and functions for drawing text are below. To print some plain text use fillText. I'm setting the font size and type by using the font property. Adding effects like shadows is a piece of cake too. The following code uses the shadow drawing objects to create the shadow. The shadow can be customised to create any angle or shadow colour you like.
I've only demoed a small fraction of what you can do with text on the canvas.
For more information on this, check out the Text section on W3C. Well when you're working with the canvas, it's possible to work with images and videos too. Well the big advantage is your image can be part of a much bigger and complex image thanks to all the wizardry you can create with the canvas element.
There's one main function for working with images and videos, and that's drawImage. The following piece of code references the sheep image and draws that on the canvas. The image can now be rotated, flipped, faded in and out or simply spun around now that it's drawn on the canvas. Videos follow a similar path. First you need to use the HTML5 video element.
As you can imagine, there's a tonne of functionality attached to this element, so before we begin, you should read up about it here.
The video element on its own is not that interesting. The element itself contains a controls attribute, which determines if the browser should display the standard set of video controls, and loop which tells the browser if the video is recursive.
Inside the video element you specify three children, each with the same video, but with different formats. Nothing new here, but when you team the video element with the canvas, well you can come up with some amazing things. Not much is happening here. The result is awesome. This is why setInterval is called when the page loads.
The live video can be seen here. Transformations and animations are possible with the canvas element. Here are some of the related properties and functions for performing transformations. To rotate the context, pass in an angle and it will rotate on the canvas. The following example demonstrates draws a rectangle every milliseconds and each rectangle is rotated, so the effect is like a spinning wheel. The colour is randomized as well to produce a brilliant effect.
The still image does this demonstration no favours, so to see the animation working you can go here. Scaling canvas elements is easy too. Again the image will not show the animation, so to see the animation working you can go here.
As you can imagine this is just a starting point for transformations and animations. For a complex animation, you can take a look at Brilliant Lines, which was created by the W3C group. That can be found here. For more information on transformations, you should go here. As you may have guessed, working with the mouse is also possible. Just like any element on a webpage, you can return the x and y coordinates of the mouse by querying the pageX and pageY properties of the element. To track the mouse over a canvas, here's the snippet of code.
In the code above, I've attached an event to capture the mouse movement, so when it moves, the x and y coordinates are printed to the webpage. Nice and simple. For something a little more advanced, I wanted to make like canvas act like a piece of paper, so it gives you the ability to draw on it.
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