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The quantity chi-square describes the magnitude of the discrepancy between theory and observation. Embed Size px. Physiological and Behavioral Changes Speech problems Impulsive Behavior Crying for no apparent reason Laughing in a high pitch and nervous tone of voice. Surbhi Kumari. The steel industry has been actively recycling for more than years, in large part because it is economically advantageous to do so.
Findings and Suggestions Conclusions Chapter Questionnaire Bibliography 5 6. It is a disease that may affectyou, your organization, and any of the people in it, so you cannot afford toignore it. The Garden of Eden began as a tranquil stress environment. Adam was offered a choiceand, as we know, decision-making is the breeding ground for conflict,frustration and distress. Itoccurs when the body is required to perform beyond its normalrange of capabilities.
Stress is the way that you react physically, mentally andemotionally to various conditions, changes and demands inyour life. High levels of stress can affect your physical andmental well being and performance. Ivancevich and Matteson define stressas individual with the environment. Stress is a dynamic condition, which an individual isconfronted with an opportunity, constraint or demand relatedto what he or she desires and for which the outcome isperceived to be both uncertain and important.
Stress isassociated with constraints and demands. The former preventyou from doing what you desire, the latter refers to the loss ofsomething desired. Stress is highest for those individuals who perceive that theyare uncertain as to whether they will win or lose and lowestfor those individuals who think that winning or losing iscertainty. Canadian physician Hans Selye in his bookthe stress of life popularized the idea of stress.
According to Selye, the General Adaptation Syndrome consistsof three phases. Ce level begins to decline irreversibly. The organismcollapses. The first is the alarm phases. Here the individualmobilizes to meet the threat. The alarm reaction has two phases. Alarm reaction is characterized by autonomous excitability;adrenaline discharges; increase heart rate, ulceration.
The second is the phase of resistance. The individualattempts to resist or cope with the threat. Maximum adaptation occurs duringthis stage. The bodily signs characteristic of the alarm reaction disappear. Itthe stress persist, or the defensive reaction proves ineffective, it mayoverwhelm the body resources. Depleted of energy, the body enters thephase of third. Adaptation energy is exhausted.
Sings of the alarmreaction reappear, and the resistance level begins to define irreversibly. Theorganism collapses. The socialsector refers to the other such factors. The Intrapsychic sector encompassesthose things, which are intimate, and persona, like temperament, values,abilities and health. It is contended that stress can originate in any of thesesectors or in combinations thereof.
In the figure below it can be seen that the magnitude of stressemanating from the stress to learner limit of the individual to handle thesestress.
This indicates a balanced state. In this stage, we find minor surfacechanges taking place, which are quite manageable. This is the stage at which he negative consequences of the stress become apparent.
Most of the stress related diseases emerge at this point. Extra ordinary effort 2. Worry and anxiety about the self 3. Onset of physiological symptoms 4. Aggressive tendencies Several types of breakdowns and cracks are observable in this stagei. If unchecked the situation may culminate into the last andmost intense phase wherein complete disintegration of personality takesplace.
At this stage, the individual requires proper psychological andmedical care. The figure below depicts the fourth and fifth stage. Pestonjee has also developed a model to explain how we cope withstress reactions. It is called the BOUNCE model because the behavioraldecomposition taking place due to stress tense to get reflected ininterpersonal reactions.
Veningle and spradley have identified five distinct stages of BOSS. Dysfunctional features emerge in two ways first; the energy reversesare gradually depleted in coping with the demands of a challengingenvironment. Second, habits and strategies for coping with stress are formedin this stage which is often not useful in coping with later challenges. Heightened pessimism, self-doubling tendencies, peptic ulcers, tension headaches, chronic backaches,blood pressure.
While recovery from this stage elude may be resourceful to tide over thecrises. For example, one produces neustress in order to breath, work. It is thought to be caused by something bad for example the boss gives a formal reprimand for poor performance.
It the stress response is unfavorable and potentially disease producing, this is known as distress. Constant worry in a susceptible individual can lead to ulcers. This is the positive, pleasant side of stress caused by stress caused by goodthings. For examples an employee is offered a job promotion at another I.
Organizational stress can be measured by absenteeism and quality or work. An organizationwith a high level of absenteeism, rapid staff turnover, deteriorating industrialand customer relations, a worsening safety record, or poor quality control issuffering from organizational stress. Causes that are affecting individuals. Stress is contagious; anyone who is notperforming well due to increases the amount of pressure on their colleagues,superiors, and subordinates.
There are three categories of potential stressors: Just as environmental uncertainty influences the design of anorganization. Changes in business cycle create economic uncertainties. Political uncertainties: If the political system in a country is implemented in an orderlymanner, there would not be any type of stress.
Technological uncertainties: Technological uncertainty thereforeis a third type of environmental factor that can cause stress.
Computers,robotics, automation and other forms of technological innovations are threatto many people and cause them stress. Organization factors: There are no storages of factors within the organization that can causestress; pressures to avoid error or complete tasks in a limited time period,work overload are few examples.
Role demands relate to pressures placed on a person as a function ofthe particular role he or she plays in the organization. Role overhead isexperienced when the employees is expected to do more than time permits. Interpersonal demands are pressures created by other employees.
Lackof social support from colleagues and poor. Interpersonal relationships can cause considerable stress, especiallyamong employed with a high social need. Organizational structure defines the level of differentiation in theorganization, the degree of rules and regulations, and where decisions aremade. Excessive rules and lack of participation in decision that affect anemployee are examples of structural variables that might be potentialsources of stress.
Potential sources Consequences 17 Organizational leadership represents the managerial style of theorganizations senior executive. Some executive officers create a culturecharacterized by tension, fear, and anxiety. This creates a fear in theirhearts, which lead to stress. Organizations go through a cycle.
They are established; they grow,become mature, and eventually decline. Where it is in four stage cycle-creates different problems and pressures foremployees. The establishment and decline stage are particularly stressful. Individual factors: The typical individual only works about 40 hrs a week. Theexperience and problems that people encounter in those other non-workhrs each week can spell over to the job. Family problems: Economic problems: Economic problems created by individuals overextending theirfinancial resources are another set of personal troubles that can create stressfor employees and distract their attention from their work.
These changes have contributed to a majorincrease in stress. The agents or demands that evoke the potential response are referredto as stressors. Extra organizational stressors: Extra organizational stressors have a tremendous impact on job stress. Taking an open system perspective of an organization, it is clear that jobstress is not just limited to things that happen inside the organization, duringworking hours.
Organizational stressors: Besides the potential stressors that occur outside the organization,there are also those associated with the organization itself. The group can also be a potential source of stress.
Group stressors canbe categorized into three areas. Lack of groups cohesiveness: If the employee is denied the opportunity for this cohesiveness because of the task design, because the supervisor does things to prohibit or limit it, or because the other members of the group shut the person out, this can be very stress producing. Lack of social support: It this type of social support is lacking for an individual, it can be very stressful.
Recognizing these personality types meansthat more focused help can be given. Stress shows itself number of ways. For instance, individual who isexperiencing high level of stress may develop high blood pressure, ulcers,irritability, difficulty in making routine decisions, loss of appetite, accidentproneness, and the like.
These can be subsumed under three categories: Individual consequences of stress are those, which affect theindividual directly. Due to this the organization may suffer directly orindirectly, but it is the individual who has to pays for it. Individualconsequences of stress are broadly divided into behavioral, psychologicaland medical.
Behaviorally related stress symptoms include changes in productivity, turnover, as well as changes in eating habits, increased smoking or consumption of alcohol, paid speech, and sleep disorders. Job related stress could cause dissatisfaction, infact it has most psychological effect on the individual and lead to tension, anxiety irritability, and boredom.
According to a research conducted, it revealed that stress could create changes in metabolism, increase heart and breathing rates, increases blood pressure bring out headaches and induce heart attacks. Organizational consequences: Organizational consequences of stress have direct affect on theorganizations. These include decline in performance, withdrawal andnegative changes in attitude. Promotions and other organizational benefits get affected due to this.
Significant form of withdrawal behavior is absenteeism. Job satisfaction, morale and organizational commitment can all suffer, along with motivation to perform at higher levels. Burnout is a general feeling of exhaustion that develops whenan individual simultaneously experiences too much pressure and few sourcesof satisfaction. Managing stress in the work place Every responds to stress in a different way, it is only by understandingthe nature of individual responses that you can start fighting stress yourselfand others.
Reduction or elimination of stress is necessary for psychological andphysical well being of an individual. Efficiency in stress managementenables the individual to deal or cope with the stressful situations instead ofavoidance. Strategies like tie management, body-mind and mind-bodyrelaxation exercise, seeking social support help individual improve theirphysical and mental resources to deal with stress successfully.
Apart from helping employees adopt certain coping strategies to dealwith stress providing them with the service of counselor is also useful. Many strategies have been developed to help manage stress in thework place. Some are strategies for individuals, and other is geared towardorganizations. Individual coping strategies: Many strategies for helping individuals manage stress have beenproposed. Individual coping strategies are used when an employee under stressexhibits undesirable behavior on the jobs such as performance, strainedrelationship with co-workers, absenteeism alcoholism and the like.
Employees under stress require help in overcoming its negative effects. Thestrategies used are: People who exercise regularly are known to less likely to haveheart attacks than inactive people are.
Research also has suggested thatpeople who exercise regularly feel less tension and stress are more conflictand slow greater optimism. Copyingwith stress require adaptation. Proper relaxation is an effective way to adopt. Relaxation can take many forms. One way to relax is to take regularvacations; people can also relax while on the job i.
A popular way of resting is to sit quietly withclosed eyes for ten minutes every afternoon. Time management: One popular approach to timemanagement is to make a list, every morning or the thins to be done thatday. Then you group the items on the list into three categories: A support group is simply a group of family member or friends withwhom a person can spend time.
Supportive family and friends can helppeople deal with normal stress on an ongoing basis. Support groups can beparticularly useful during times of crisis.
By consciouslyanalyzing the cause and consequences of their own behavior, the employeescan achieve self-control. They can further develop awareness of their ownlimits of tolerance and learn to anticipate their own responses to variousstressful situations. The strategy involves increasing an individuals controlover the situations rather than being solely controlled by them. Personal counseling help employees understand and appreciate adiverse workforce, the holistic approach adopted by the counselor gives hima comprehensive view of the employee as client and enable him to deal theissues of work related problems in a larger context with his awareness of theinter-relationship among problems in adjustment with self, other andenvironment and that a work concern will effect personal life and vice-versa,the employee would receive help regarding the problem in all life.
One of the advantage of the individual interventions is the individualcan use these skills to improve the quality of life in offer domains likefamily, social support and self, thus reducing the negative carry ofexperiences in these domains into the work life which might effect hisoccupation mental health.
Shift work in particular canconstantly have to adjust their sleep and relaxation patterns. Thus, the designof work schedules should be a focused of organizational efforts to reducestress.
Theorganization should strive to foster a culture that reinforces a healthy mix ofwork and nonworking activities. Finally, supervision can play an important institutional role inoverload. In managing stress. A supervisor is a potential manager source ofoverload. If made aware of their potential for assigning stressful amounts ofwork, supervisors can do a better job keeping workloads reasonable.
In addition to their institutional efforts aimed at reducing stress, manyorganizations are turning to collateral programs. A collateral stress programin an organizational program specifically created to help employees dealwith stress. The organizations have adopted stress management programs,health promotion programs and other kinds of programs for this purpose.
It has become synonymous with progress in allfields of activities. Its standard of living in the words of DAGLI is asfollows it is said that the difference between a starving Indian peasant and aprosperous American farmer is that behind his elbow the India farmer hasalmost nothing while his American counterpart has thousands of hourspower. This, it is energy, which is the dividing line between any substanceeconomy and a highly developed economy.
India is poor and American isrich because America consumes nearly 50 times as much energy as isconsumed by India. Energy is at the heart of the modern industrial society. Itcould also be effective weapon in the battle against object poverty. There is a close correlation between energy consumption and level ofeconomic development. There arevarious sources of energy but in India the important sources are coal,hydroelectricity. Oil and natural gas, nuclear fuels fire wood and animalwastes.
Despites the development of various sources in the energy sector,the fact still remains that low last energy sources like fire wood, cattle drugand vegetable wastes account for as much at 45 percent of energyconsumption in the country.
Power development in India began in when a KW hydrostation was first commissioned at Darjeeling, in a first steam stationwas set up in Calcutta with a total of kw. There after, a series of hydroand steam power station were commissioned. But the power developmentwas not in a systematic and planned manner in the country. Therefore, inorder to achieve the objective of promoting the co-ordination developmentand rationalization of generation, transmission and distribution of electricityon a regional basis throughout the country in the most efficient andeconomic way the state electricity board SEBs was constituted in thevarious states of the country under the provisions of the electricity supply act These SEBs, were to enjoy the monopoly in respect of generation,transmission and distribution of electricity in the country.
After constitutionof SEBs, there was phenomenal improvement in the development ofinstalled capacity and power generation. The efficiency of working of powerplant and their maintenance have been unsatisfactory as a result of which thepower generating capacity already created could not have been fully utilized.
Power is the single factor, which changed the way of living. TheNational Thermal Power Corporation Limited, established on November 7 thin , has become the most important infrastructure input for improvingthe standard of living to meet the growing demand and to fulfill the needs ofthe country.
It refers to the inability of a human or animal body to respond. Common stress symptoms include irritability, muscular tension, inability to concentrate and a variety of physical reactions, such as headaches and accelerated heart rate.
The term "stress" was first used by the endocrinologist Hans Selye in the s to identify physiological responses in laboratory animals. He later broadened and popularized the concept to include the perceptions and responses of humans trying to adapt to the challenges of everyday life. In Selye's terminology, "stress" refers to the reaction of the organism, and "stressor" to the perceived threat.
Stress in certain circumstances may be experienced positively. Eustress, for example, can be an adaptive response prompting the activation of internal resources to meet challenges and achieve goals. The term is commonly used by laypersons in a metaphorical rather than literal or biological sense, as a catch-all for any perceived difficulties in life. It also became a euphemism, a way of referring to problems and eliciting sympathy without being explicitly confessional, just "stressed out".
It covers a huge range of phenomena from mild irritation to the kind of severe problems that might result in a real breakdown of health. In popular usage almost any event or situation between these extremes could be described as stressful. Stress has often been misunderstood to be negative, with few people acknowledging the importance and usefulness of positive stress.
In our everyday lives, stress is everywhere and definitely unavoidable; hence our emphasis should be on differentiating between what is good stress, and what is bad. This will help us to learn to cope with negative stress, and harness the power of positive stress to help us achieve more.
Negative stress can cause many physical and psychological problems, whilst positive stress can be very helpful for us. Eustress is a natural physical reaction by your body which increases blood flow to your muscles, resulting in a higher heart rate. Athletes before a competition or perhaps a manager before a major presentation would do well with Eustress, allowing them to derive the inspiration and strength that is needed. This occurs when the mind and body is unable to cope with changes, and usually occurs when there are deviations from the norm.
They can be categorized into acute stress and chronic stress. Acute stress is intense, but does not last for long. On the other hand, chronic stress persists over a long period of time. Trigger events for distress can be a change in job scope or routine that the person is unable to handle or cope with. Examples include highly stressful jobs, which require longer working hours than the individual can handle.
It is important for you to recognize that your body needs a break, or you may end up with severe and chronic physical and psychological reactions. This is due to an insufficient amount of stress; hence some stress is inevitable and helpful to us.
Companies should avoid having workers who experience hypo stress as this will cause productivity and mindfulness to fall.
If the job scope is boring and repetitive, it would be a good idea to implement some form of job rotation so that there is always something new to learn. The London Royal Exchange was established in At that time moneychangers were already called bankers, though the term "bank" usually referred to their offices, and did not carry the meaning it does today.
There was also a hierarchical order among professionals; at the top were the bankers who did business with heads of state, next were the city exchanges, and at the bottom were the pawn shops or "Lombard"'s. Some European cities today have a Lombard street where the pawn shop was located.
After the siege of Antwerp trade moved to Amsterdam. In the Amsterdamsche Wisselbank Amsterdam Exchange Bank was founded which made Amsterdam the financial centre of the world until the Industrial Revolution. Banking offices were usually located near centers of trade, and in the late 17th century, the largest centers for commerce were the ports of Amsterdam, London, and Hamburg. Individuals could participate in the lucrative East India trade by purchasing bills of credit from these banks, but the price they received for commodities was dependent on the ships returning which often didn't happen on time and on the cargo they carried which often wasn't according to plan.
The commodities market was very volatile for this reason, and also because of the many wars that led to cargo seizures and loss of ships.
It was the largest bank failure in history. From till today, the journey of Indian Banking System can be segregated into three distinct phases. They are as mentioned below: Next came Bank of Hindustan and Bengal Bank.
These three banks were amalgamated in and Imperial Bank of India was established which started as private shareholders banks, mostly Europeans shareholders. Reserve Bank of India came in During the first phase the growth was very slow and banks also experienced periodic failures between and There were approximately banks, mostly small.
Reserve Bank of India was vested with extensive powers for the supervision of banking in india as the Central Banking Authority.
During those days public has lesser confidence in the banks. As an aftermath deposit mobilisation was slow. Abreast of it the savings bank facility provided by the Postal department was comparatively safer. Moreover, funds were largely given to traders. In , it nationalised Imperial Bank of India with extensive banking facilities on a large scale specially in rural and semi-urban areas.
It formed State Bank of india to act as the principal agent of RBI and to handle banking transactions of the Union and State Governments all over the country.
Seven banks forming subsidiary of State Bank of India was nationalised in on 19th July, , major process of nationalisation was carried out. It was the effort of the then Prime Minister of India, Mrs. Indira Gandhi. Second phase of nationalisation Indian Banking Sector Reform was carried out in with seven more banks. Enactment of Banking Regulation Act.
Nationalisation of State Bank of India. Nationalisation of SBI subsidiaries. Insurance cover extended to deposits. Nationalisation of 14 major banks. Creation of credit guarantee corporation. Creation of regional rural banks. Nationalisation of seven banks with deposits over crore. Banking in the sunshine of Government ownership gave the public implicit faith and immense confidence about the sustainability of these institutions.
Phase III This phase has introduced many more products and facilities in the banking sector in its reforms measure. In , under the chairmanship of M Narasimham, a committee was set up by his name which worked for the liberalisation of banking practices. The country is flooded with foreign banks and their ATM stations.
Efforts are being put to give a satisfactory service to customers. Phone banking and net banking is introduced. The entire system became more convenient and swift. Time is given more importance than money. The financial system of India has shown a great deal of resilience. It is sheltered from any crisis triggered by any external macroeconomics shock as other East Asian Countries suffered. This is all due to a flexible exchange rate regime, the foreign reserves are high, the capital account is not yet fully convertible, and banks and their customers have limited foreign exchange exposure.
These pressures at work lead to mental and physical disorders. This study will help organizations know what causes stress and how to reduce the same in employees since it is a well known fact that a healthy and sound employee is a productive employee. Secondary objective: So the scope of sample findings was less. So the point of view of employees differs as per their designations. These problems are not in all cases.
This will help to find our new areas uncovered and to study them in depth. The earlier studies made on stress among the employees are briefly reviewed here. The research study of Jamal. Type A behaviour was found to be an important moderator of the stress outcome relationship.
Hans Selye was one of the founding fathers of stress research. The stress of exhilarating, creative successful work is beneficial, while that of failure, humiliation or infection is detrimental. Fienmann views stress as a psychological response state of negative effect characterized by a persistent and a high level of experienced anxiety or tension. P and J. Are we making mountains out of molehills? Hans Seyle, the endocrinologist, whose research on General Adaptation Syndrome GAS , for the first time, revealed how human beings adapt themselves to emotional strives and strains in their lives.
According to him emotional stress occurs in three important stages. Alarm reaction stage 2. Resistance stage 3.
Exhaustion stage. Alarm reaction is caused by physical or psychological stressors. Resistances are brought about by ACTH hormone of the body. Exhaustion follows when ACTH dwindles as a result of continual stress. Anticipatory emotions like impatience, anxiety, and anger can produce the same nerve impulses and chemical reactions as being faced with a concrete challenge. K, pp Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, demand or resource related to what the individual desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important.
This is a complicated definition. Stress is not necessarily bad in and of itself. Although stress is typically discussed in a negative context, it also has a positive value.
Such individuals often use stress positively to rise to the occasion and perform at or near their maximum. Similarly, many professionals see the pressures of heavy workloads and deadlines as positive challenges that enhance the quality of their work and the satisfaction the get from their job. But it is different in the case of bank employees. The bank employees are the people who also have to achieve the certain target and so for the non achievement of target the employees remain stressed and tensed.
The employees who have the simple table work also have to face the problem of stress. Due to recession the banking sector is also facing the problem of employee cut-offs and so the work load of the existing employees increases and the feel stressed.
In our fast paced world, it is impossible to live without stress, whether you are a student or a working adult. Not all stress is bad. For example, positive stress, also known as eustress, can help an individual to function at optimal effectiveness and efficiency.
Hence, it is evident that some form of positive stress can add more color and vibrancy to our lives. The presence of a deadline, for example, can push us to make the most of our time and produce greater efficiency.
It is important to keep this in mind, as stress management refers to using stress to our advantage, and not on eradicating the presence of stress in our lives. On the other hand, negative stress can result in mental and physical strain.
The individual will experience symptoms such as tensions, headaches, irritability and in extreme cases, heart palpitations. Hence, whilst some stress may be seen as a motivating force, it is important to manage stress levels so that it does not have an adverse impact on your health and relationships.
Part of managing your stress levels include learning about how stress can affect you emotionally and physically, as well as how to identify if you are performing at your optimal stress level OSL or if you are experiencing negative stress.
This knowledge will help you to identify when you need to take a break, or perhaps seek professional help. It is also your first step towards developing techniques to managing your stress levels. Modern day stresses can take the form of monetary needs, or emotional frictions. Competition at work and an increased workload can also cause greater levels of stress. How do you identify if you are suffering from excessive stress?
Psychological symptoms commonly experienced include insomnia, headaches and an inability to focus. Physical symptoms take the form of heart palpitations, breathlessness, excessive sweating and stomachaches.
What causes stress? There are many different causes of stress, and that which causes stress is also known as a stressor. Common lifestyle stressors include performance, threat, and bereavement stressors, to name a few.
Performance stressors are triggered when an individual is placed in a situation where he feels a need to excel. This could be during performance appraisals, lunch with the boss, or giving a speech. Lastly, bereavement stressors occur when there is a sense of loss such as the death of a loved one, or a prized possession. Thus, there are various stressors, and even more varied methods and techniques of dealing with stress and turning it to our advantages. In order to do so, we must learn to tell when we have crossed the line from positive to negative stress.
Peripheral stimuli are likely to be the first to be screened out or ignored. Decision making models proposed by Janis and Mann support this hypothesis and suggest that under stress, individuals may make decisions based on incomplete information. Friedman and Mann suggest that when under conditions of stress, individuals may fail to consider the full range of alternatives available, ignore long-term consequences, and make decisions based on oversimplifying assumptions. Furthermore, the individuals may suffer from performance rigidity as a result of their reduced search behaviour and reliance on fewer perceptual cues to make decisions.
Research on decision making under stress supports these theoretical models. Observe the decision making processes of individuals under time pressure. We find that individuals under time pressure tend to focus their attention only on a few salient cues. Sleep-deprived stressed individuals in his study were more likely to obey orders without thinking and to ignore cues that implied the presence of something unusual.
Stress can also contribute to performance decrements by slowing cognition and individual information processing. However hard we try to go beyond a stress situation, life seems to find new ways of stressing us out and plaguing us with anxiety attacks. Moreover, be it our anxiety, mind-body exhaustion or our erring attitudes, we tend to overlook causes of stress and the conditions triggered by those.
In such unsettling moments we often forget that stressors, if not escapable, are fairly manageable and treatable. Stress, either quick or constant, can induce risky body-mind disorders. Immediate disorders such as dizzy spells, anxiety attacks, tension, sleeplessness, nervousness and muscle cramps can all result in chronic health problems. They may also affect our immune, cardiovascular and nervous systems and lead individuals to habitual addictions, which are inter-linked with stress.
Like "stress reactions", "relaxation responses" and stress management techniques are some of the body's important built-in response systems. As a relaxation response the body tries to get back balance in its homeostasis. Some hormones released during the 'fight or flight' situation prompt the body to replace the lost carbohydrates and fats, and restore the energy level. The knotted nerves, tightened muscles and an exhausted mind crave for looseness.
Unfortunately, today, we don't get relaxing and soothing situations without asking. To be relaxed we have to strive to create such situations. The description of stressors and their impact on behaviour is an open-ended task, and current research considers an increasing number of events and conditions to be stressors.
These physiological effects, defined as a stress response, can include increased blood pressure, dilated pupils and increased heart rate. This also happens when the causes of stress are there long enough for us to get habituated to them.
The body constantly tries to tell us through symptoms such as rapid palpitation, dizzy spells, tight muscles or various body aches that something is wrong. It is important to remain attentive to such symptoms and to learn to cope with the situations. We cope better with stressful situation, when we encounter them voluntarily. In cases of relocation, promotion or layoff, adventurous sports or having a baby, we tend to respond positively under stress. But, when we are compelled into such situations against our will or knowledge, more often than not, we wilt at the face of unknown and imagined threats.
For instance, stress may mount when one is coerced into undertaking some work against one's will. Stress-related disorders encompass a broad array of conditions, including psychological disorders e. In turn, these conditions may lead to poor work performance or even injury. Job stress is also associated with various biological reactions that may lead ultimately to compromised health, such as cardiovascular disease.
Stress is a prevalent and costly problem in today's workplace. About one-third of workers report high levels of stress. One-quarter of employees view their jobs as the number one stressor in their lives.
Three-quarters of employees believe the worker has more on-the-job stress than a generation ago. Evidence also suggests that stress is the major cause of turnover in organizations. Health and Healthcare Utilization Problems at work are more strongly associated with health complaints than are any other life stressor-more so than even financial problems or family problems.
On the basis of research by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and many other organizations, it is widely believed that job stress increases the risk for development of back and upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders.
High levels of stress are associated with substantial increases in health service utilization. Workers who report experiencing stress at work also show excessive health care utilization.
Additionally, periods of disability due to job stress tend to be much longer than disability periods for other occupational injuries and illnesses. Views differ on the importance of worker characteristics versus working conditions as the primary cause of job stress.
The differing viewpoints suggest different ways to prevent stress at work. According to one school of thought, differences in individual characteristics such as personality and coping skills are most important in predicting whether certain job conditions will result in stress-in other words, what is stressful for one person may not be a problem for someone else. This viewpoint leads to prevention strategies that focus on workers and ways to help them cope with demanding job conditions.
Although the importance of individual differences cannot be ignored, scientific evidence suggests that certain working conditions are stressful to most people. Such evidence argues for a greater emphasis on working conditions as the key source of job stress, and for job redesign as a primary prevention strategy. Personal interview surveys of working conditions, including conditions recognized as risk factors for job stress, were conducted in Member States of the European Union in , , and Results showed a trend across these periods suggestive of increasing work intensity.
A substantial percentage of Americans work very long hours. These figures represent a considerable increase over the previous three decades, especially for women. The effects of job stress on chronic diseases are more difficult to see because chronic diseases take a long time to develop and can be influenced by many factors other than stress.
Nonetheless, evidence is rapidly accumulating to suggest that stress plays an important role in several types of chronic health problems-especially cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disorders, and psychological disorders. Paul Fire and Marine Insurance Company conducted several studies on the effects of stress prevention programs in hospital settings. Program activities included 1 employee and management education on job stress, 2 changes in hospital policies and procedures to reduce organizational sources of stress, and 3 establishment of employee assistance programs.
In contrast, there was no reduction in claims in a matched group of 22 hospitals that did not implement stress prevention activities. What is the reason for this? There is partly the fear from being retrenched in bad times, leading to greater job insecurity on the part of those who remain.
Undoubtedly, occupational stress is one of the most commonly cited stressors faced by people all over the world. Stress refers to the pressure and reactions to our environment which results in psychological and physical reactions. Whilst some stress is good for motivation and increasing efficiency, too much stress can result in negative impacts such as reduced effectiveness and efficiency.
More and more people are feeling isolated and disrespected at work, and this has led to greater occupational stress. Many companies have taken to consulting experts and professionals on ways to increase connectedness and motivation of their employees.
Some companies organize parties and make their employees feel valued at work. These are measures to motivate employees and help them to feel secure at their jobs, translating into greater productivity.
However, not all companies have such measures in place, and some have not gotten it quite right. Hence, it is up to you to make sure that you can cope with stress at your workplace, and use it to help you work better. Here are 3 simple steps to help you with coping with stress in the workplace.
Raising Awareness Help yourself to identify when you are facing rising levels of stress, tipping the scales from positive to negative. This is important, as being able to identify signs of being stressed can help you to take steps to ensure that your overall quality of life does not drop.
If left unacknowledged, the problem will only snowball, leading to disastrous consequences to your health and overall wellbeing.
You can identify if you are feeling stressed by checking if you have any physical or psychological reactions, such as excessive sweating or heart palpitations, or the onset of headaches, irritability or the need to escape. If you experience any of these reactions, identify if you are feeling any overwhelming negative emotions, and if you are constantly worried. Step 2: Identify the Cause You need to be able to analyze the situation and identify what is causing the rise in stress.
These stressors can be external and internal. External stressors refer to things beyond your control, such as the environment or your colleagues at work. Internal stressors refer to your own thinking and attitude.
Often, we only start reacting to stress when a combination of stressors working together exceeds our ability to cope. Keep a diary or a list of events that have caused you to feel strong negative emotions, or that are likely stressors. This will help you to identify the causes of your stress. Whilst it is not always possible to eradicate them, we can change the way that we cope with it.
Step 3: Coping with Stress In order to deal with the situation that is causing you stress, you need to calm your mind and body so as to stave off the reactions and cope with it in a positive way.
This can be through different methods, such as taking time off. If a situation is triggering your stress and you are unable to calm down, remove yourself from it. Go outside and take a walk to calm down. Alternatively, you can try implementing relaxation techniques such as deep breathing. If it is an internal stressor, stop your thought process until you are able to deal with it logically. The key to making these 3 steps work for you is to practice them.
These are not instantaneous solutions, and you need to condition your mind and practice them so that you can implement it when you are feeling stressed. Job analysis: We have all experienced that appalling sense of having far too much work to do and too little time to do it in. We can choose to ignore this, and work unreasonably long hours to stay on top of our workload.
The risks here are that we become exhausted, that we have so much to do that we do a poor quality job and that we neglect other areas of our life. Each of these can lead to intense stress.
The alternative is to work more intelligently, by focusing on the things that are important for job success and reducing the time we spend on low priority tasks. Job Analysis is the first step in doing this. The first of the action-oriented skills that we look at is Job Analysis. Job Analysis is a key technique for managing job overload — an important source of stress.
To do an excellent job, you need to fully understand what is expected of you. While this may seem obvious, in the hurly-burly of a new, fast-moving, high-pressure role, it is oftentimes something that is easy to overlook.
By understanding the priorities in your job, and what constitutes success within it, you can focus on these activities and minimize work on other tasks as much as possible. This helps you get the greatest return from the work you do, and keep your workload under control.
Job Analysis is a useful technique for getting a firm grip on what really is important in your job so that you are able to perform excellently. It helps you to cut through clutter and distraction to get to the heart of what you need to do.
You are thinking negatively when you fear the future, put yourself down, criticize yourself for errors, doubt your abilities, or expect failure.
Negative thinking damages confidence, harms performance and paralyzes mental skills. Unfortunately, negative thoughts tend to flit into our consciousness, do their damage and flit back out again, with their significance having barely been noticed.
Since we barely realize that they were there, we do not challenge them properly, which means that they can be completely incorrect and wrong. One approach to it is to observe your "stream of consciousness" as you think about the thing you're trying to achieve which is stressful. Do not suppress any thoughts. Instead, just let them run their course while you watch them, and write them down on our free worksheet as they occur. Then let them go.