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Let the harried driver cut in. Such hermaphroditic plants are most common among some varieties native to south Asia, but can also result from environmental stress such as inadequate light or nutrition. When this happens for about five days, the plants transition from vegetative growth to flowering. Even the United States Government had to back off when it came to arguing with Ed. Humans carried it to every climate and every continent and helped it fit into its new homes. Just trust me on this one.
Your plant's healthy productive growth cycle is a direct result of the quality … [Read more Growing Marijuana Hydroponically Growing marijuana hydroponically is method of growing cannabis plants without soil. The plants get fed by soluble fertilizers that are dissolved in water. Hydroponic … [Read more Introduction to Cloning Cannabis can be reproduced asexually or sexually.
Many growers take advantage of this awesome process … [Read more Growing With Soil There are many benefits of growing marijuana in soil. For one thing it is very cheap and easy to get started right away if you cannot afford your hydroponic system immediately … [Read more Germination Once you have decided that it is time to use your seed to grow a plant, you will have to initiate plant growth by germinating the seed.
During germination moisture, heat, and air activate … [Read more Lighting is one of, if not the most essential ingredient needed for a quick, highyielding crop. Your lights may very well be your … [Read more Cannabis Cannabis plants begin as tiny little sprouts and eventually, toward the end of their flowering cycle, they fill out into a Christmas Tree-like shape. There are primarily three parts to a … [Read more A psychiatrist by training, he was something of an expert on cultivation as well as medicine, tramping off to Morocco to study kif cultivation in the Rif Mountains for his book Economic Botany.
Not only was he one of the few who had actually read the Indian Hemp Drugs Commission report of , he had just had them republished. A few years later, his Marijuana Medical Papers would bring together the best articles in English about medical marijuana. As his hero, Dr. Mikuriya re-introduced cannabis therapeutics to modern medicine. Why not, he had proposed then, fund the marijuana movement by selling hemp products?
We ran with the idea, and in set up Amorphia, The Cannabis Co-op—a nonprofit organization that manufactured and marketed hemp-rolling papers. Because hemp cultivation was illegal in the U. Amorphia sold Acapulco Gold rolling papers made from rice, maize, chocolate, and hemp , with all the proceeds devoted to legalization, including funding the California Marijuana Initiative.
Amorphia emphasized cultivation for personal use as part of any legalization plan, and we liked the idea of using grassroots political activism, including voter initiatives, to achieve our goals. IN , a bold young attorney named R. One of the main differences between Amorphia and NORML was that Stroup preferred a more traditional legislative approach to reform, working with politicians and suits rather than hippies, and hated initiatives because he was sure they would fail.
The time was right for both groups, because the U. This new scheme created a system of schedules for dangerous drugs, with penalties dependent on which schedule the drug was in, but gave the U. Marijuana, Mitchell decided, would go in Schedule I along with heroin, instead of Schedule II or III for drugs with recognized medical uses, such as cocaine and amphetamines. Pot was officially the drug of hippies, not doctors.
Nixon appointed seven of its 13 members, including its chairman, Raymond Shafer, the former governor of Pennsylvania who was then a national Republican Party leader. In a taped Oval Office conversation with his chief of staff, H.
What the Christ is the matter with the Jews, Bob, what is the matter with them? We are going to hit the marijuana thing, and I want to hit it right square in the puss. With impetus from Foster City attorney Leo Paoli, we came up with an initiative that emphasized cultivation for personal use. CMI was succinct, easily understandable, and appealing to volunteers.
It said: It was the first time marijuana law reform was on the ballot anywhere in the world. It was the first time that sales of hemp paper funded an initiative.
And it was the last time that a California initiative campaign was run entirely by volunteers, instead of paid signature gatherers. The marijuana movement grew from a handful of activists to a state full of supporters. Ed Rosenthal moved to San Francisco in He shared our vision of cultivation as the key to legalization and toured California encouraging growers to support the initiative, and offering advice to improve their crops.
We took word of the campaign The marijuana movement grew from a handful of activists to a state full of supporters. In , Milk won a seat on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors and became the first openly gay American to be elected to public office.
Following that, Councilwoman Loni Hancock—who would later become mayor and serve in the state Assembly and Senate—sponsored a local ballot measure directing police to give lowest priority to marijuana law enforcement and to make no arrests for cultivation, possession or use.
But it had a flaw: We were growing it in the U. Sinsemilla farms, indoor hydroponics included, spread throughout the U. His response, best I remember, was: He researched the history of hemp for more than a decade, and in published the first edition of The Emperor Wears No Clothes Herer It has gone through many editions and may be the most popular hemp book of all time. In the s, Jack was also attempting to remedy the problem of federal prohibition with a series of initiatives in Oregon and California to legalize hemp cultivation for all purposes, though none made the ballot.
Living in Washington, D. Bob pursued his medical necessity claim through the courts, and in became the first American in 40 years to gain legal access to marijuana for medical purposes.
But where to get it? Would you believe free marijuana from the Feds?! The new mayor, Dianne Feinstein, now a U. Senator, refused to implement Proposition W. He never forgot the power of the initiative, and in he helped develop the wording and started the petition drive to put the Compassionate Use Act, Proposition , on the California state ballot. Since then, many other states have followed suit. This further legitimized the hundreds of medical cannabis dispensaries and cultivation collectives already operating in California under local ordinance.
Sentencing Commission had helped change the federal sentencing guidelines, resulting in shorter sentences for people convicted of cultivating marijuana and the release of an estimated federal marijuana prisoners.
MPP worked to pass a medical marijuana initiative in Washington, D. That success was repeated in Maryland in when four years of lobbying resulted in the Republican governor signing legislation to reduce penalties for medical marijuana use. In , litigation MPP funded established that state privacy protections that meant Alaskans 21 years or over may legally possess up to four ounces of marijuana in their homes. That same year, MPP helped pass a medical marijuana ballot initiative in Nevada and in it was instrumental in the passage of a medical marijuana initiative in Michigan.
MPP continues to lobby for medical marijuana bills and legislation to end marijuana prohibition. In the early morning hours of February 12, , federal agents began a series of coordinated raids on a San Francisco medical marijuana collective and the homes and businesses of the handful of people who were supplying it with medicine. But the Feds misjudged both their target and the patient community. Not only was Asa Hutchison shouted down by patient advocates at his speech, but the actions of his agents galvanized a grassroots response of patients.
The acronym was not a coincidence. As a grassroots organization of patients and activists, ASA began with protests around the trial of Ed Rosenthal in late and early One day, dozens of protestors stood motionless in rows with duct-taped mouths and medical placards, a silent demonstration of all that the jury was not being allowed to hear. This led to the first jury revolt in a federal medical cannabis trial, with the majority of the panel appearing on CNN, Dateline and elsewhere to denounce the Rosenthal trial as a miscarriage of justice.
Based in Oakland, California with a national lobbying office in Washington, D. ASA provides legal training and medical information, as well as court support and rapid response to law-enforcement raids. The ASA legal team has made a big impact, winning a suit against California Highway Patrol to make them comply with state medical cannabis law.
Other landmark cases have helped establish the rights of patient collectives to organize in the state. ASA is also working closely with federal policy makers to remove barriers to research and establish protections for patients everywhere in the country. The Truth in Trials Act, which would give patients a medical defense in federal trials, has been a key piece of that legislative effort.
ASA has also worked closely with state lawmakers in California and elsewhere to expand patient protections. Over the last six years, ASA has become a respected voice for medical cannabis patients. This tax-exempt c 3 organization was formed by activists and allies as a way of rallying support and directing resources to the legal defense of critical, tipping-point medical cannabis cases.
ORG tional television and radio coverage and more than published articles internationally, including front-page stories and sympathetic editorials in the New York Times, San Francisco Chronicle, Oakland Tribune, and San Francisco Examiner. Green Aid was also instrumental in helping Ed mount a successful appeal of his conviction and fight a now-expanded federal retrial in Today, Green Aid continues to assist with the legal defenses of prominent medical cannabis cases.
Supreme Court in , but they shot him down. Then one of the patients he was supplying, Angel Raich and her attorney, Rob Raich, took her medical necessity defense to the high court, but they also ruled against her. Nonetheless, these two cases helped galvanize public opinion in favor of medical marijuana legalization.
The main Oakland campus has become a focal point for both education and activism on marijuana. Thousands of articles have been written. Millions of people grow marijuana. Many decriminalization reforms have been passed by legislatures, but none have legalized cultivation for all.
Omitting the underlying question of supply impedes all the modern laws attempting to regulate marijuana. Almost three decades ago, the International Cannabis Alliance for Reform met in Amsterdam to consider legalization plans and proposals, and came to the same conclusion.
At a minimum, everyone should have the right to grow cannabis for personal use. This is the cornerstone of legalization, because it allows the consumer to opt out of the underground market.
The personal right to cultivate cannabis is the crux of any successful legalization scheme. In California, at least, medical patients have the right to free, legal, backyard marijuana. The tipping point will have been reached when everyone has that right. Although using marijuana may not be addictive, growing it is. W hy grow marijuana? The reasons can be many, and varied.
Perhaps you have never considered growing marijuana. Or, perhaps, you never tried because it felt like a difficult, risky undertaking. You may have even tried your hand at raising a young plant or two but abandoned the project when the plants failed to thrive or were overcome with mold or pests. Despite any potential pitfalls, there are many compelling reasons to embark on this journey.
Also, many medical cannabis patients understandably prefer to have the control over their medicine that a personal garden allows, with the knowledge that it is grown safely and organically. Another factor can be cost: As a plant, cannabis is similar to any other plant—it likes light, water, nutrients, and human attention. Yet it has some unique characteristics and a long history of interaction with the human species.
Time, observation, and research have taught us the best ways to care for marijuana to achieve big, beautiful buds and amazing harvests. Any effort you make to learn how to cultivate this fascinating plant will be well rewarded, and this book will help demystify the process. The most powerful reason to grow marijuana, in my experience, is the enjoyment and satisfaction that comes from forming a personal relationship with this fascinating plant. Whether you are a beginner or an experienced grower, this book provides the information to help you grow a garden that will provide you good harvests, enjoyment, and an enriching pastime.
Most gardeners, myself included, have an anthropomorphic attachment to marijuana. They name their plants, develop a fondness for one or the other. There are some good reasons for this: The best part of gardening is that at the end of the journey you will harvest some of the best buds you have ever smoked, all ripened to perfection. The legality of marijuana depends on who you are and where you are located.
If you are living in a state where it is legal for medical marijuana patients or suppliers to grow, then you will have a different attitude about growing than someone who lives in the majority of states and countries where marijuana is illegal to use or grow. Before you start to plan a garden you should have a clear understanding of the laws regarding cultivation of marijuana.
With this information you can make a realistic assessment of the situation and decide whether gardening is for you. You should also begin to make contingency plans based on worst-case scenarios. In states where medical patients are allowed to grow marijuana there are often strict limits on the number of plants or the amount of space that can be devoted to the garden.
Marijuana cultivation is often considered a serious offense so it is imperative to take precautions to keep yourself free. Some questions you might ask yourself before you commence this venture are: Am I willing to take on the responsibilities and risks? Can I afford a legal quagmire? How do my roommates feel about it?
Do I really have a secure area? People who snitch to get out of trouble also appears in the statistics. It pays then, for marijuana growers to become nicer people than they might otherwise be. Treat your friends better.
Be nice and helpful to your neighbors. Let the harried driver cut in. Develop a broader perspective on life. Marijuana Growers Handbook Website—www. This book provides what is most necessary and relevant to your growing success. Fortunately, the Internet has provided us a way to make even more information available to you. At www. As changes occur in equipment and methods the website will keep the book, and you, up to date on the latest developments.
Your password to this library: Green House Seed Co. LEE, Ph. D and D. SUN, Ph. D Photo: The study of cannabinoids has focused mainly on the brain, so first let us consider the cerebral effects of cannabis, starting with the obvious. Marijuana influences mental perception. Sometimes they can feel stupefying, like a sacrifice of chronology and mental dialogue, or an impaired ability to follow conversation. Shortterm memory can be interrupted and spatial orientation impaired, effects which can give way to a heightened sensory perception of the here and now.
It can help you feel momentarily less concerned about societal and interpersonal pressures. These properties have been portrayed from opposing perspectives: Likewise, while exceedingly few people who experiment with marijuana develop a dependency, it does happen. These matters are complex and frequently oversimplified, but it is important to recognize that even if cannabis is kind to a great many people, it does not mean it is for everyone.
The various promises and warnings about how marijuana affects the brain are rooted in genuine human experiences. For instance, millions of people lose quality of life to chronic pain.
While scientists and physicians continue to get a better grasp of what physical pain is, doctors readily acknowledge that current prescription medications are fraught with side effects and do not work on all types of pain, particularly the neuropathic pain that can result from nerve injury and disease.
Thanks to modern medical marijuana initiatives and biomedical research, including an increasing number of goldstandard, randomized double-blind clinical trials using botanical cannabis and extracts, this ancient remedy can once again be discussed without apology. Not only does cannabis relieve pain on its own, it works in concert with other analgesics to improve their efficacy.
It is appalling that a patient struggling for survival should have to risk their freedom for choosing marijuana as their medicine.
The diversity of physiological effects generated by marijuana is due to the many different cell and tissue types that express cannabinoid receptors. Various areas of the brain and other nervous system tissues contain cannabinoid receptors called CB1.
The neurological effects of marijuana depend on the particular brain areas and networks these cannabinoid-sensitive cells participate in for example, the neuronal networks mediating short-term memory, anxiety, or compulsive behavior.
The location of the receptors on the cell can alter how they operate. Most mental and perceptual effects of cannabis can be attributed to CB1 receptor activation.
A second receptor, called CB2, has been identified primarily in certain cells of the immune system. How do we know such things? It is more accurate to lowing scientists to see say that the cannabis plant which neurons in the brain evolved to produce comare sensitive to THC. Marijuana provides anandamide a Some of the only retherapeutic benefits across name derived gions of the brain where from ananda, CB1 receptors are aba startlingly broad range the Sanskrit sent are areas controlof conditions and has an ling vital functions such unparalleled record of safety.
This is why cannabis poses no risk of fatal re- for 2-arachidonylglycerol , each is generatspiratory depression that can occur with ed in cells by specific enzymes in response overdoses of opiates and other nervous to activation signals.
In the brain, for example, if one neuron electrical cell of the brain barrages another neuron with excitatory electrical The natural physiological chemicals activity, the target neuron may respond that drive CB1 and CB2 receptors are a by generating and releasing eCBs from its family of molecules present not just in cellular membrane.
Through the molecular signaling of these strategically located CB1 receptors, the release of other, more principal neurotransmitters is momentarily paused. This process, where synaptic connections between neurons are weakened or strengthened, is referred to as synaptic plasticity, a mechanism by which learning and memory occurs at the cellular level. The feedback mechanism of eCB-mediated synaptic plasticity is important not just for computational processes how we think and feel and learn , but as a matter of cellular survival; too much excitation is deadly to cells.
Yet this is only half the story. The eCBs also work the opposite way, releasing the neuron to fire more freely, a process called disinhibition. This is another way that eCB-mediated Large-scale population studies have failed to find any link between cannabis smoking and lung cancer or other respiratory ailments.
In a brain area called the amygdala, eCBs purge the memory of fearful experiences, helping an individual move past emotional trauma.
This action helps explain the apparent utility of cannabinoids including herbal cannabis as a treatment for some cases of post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD. By contrast, in the area called the hippocampus, tightly controlled eCB signaling allows cells to fire in coordinated synchrony, setting up the brain rhythms that are important for orienting oneself in physical space.
Marijuana is thought to interrupt spatial memory by simultaneously flooding all the cells in this rhythmic engine with THC…um, where did I put that pen that was just in my hand? Both of these are physiological actions that contribute to normal brain function. The fact that CB1 receptors can orchestrate the tempo of brain cells in either direction— faster or slower—surely helps to explain how cannabis can have such wide ranging, even opposite, perceived effects in different individuals and circumstances.
The story of eCBs is not just about the brain, though. Important therapeutic properties of cannabinoids are mediated by the CB2 receptors on immune cells.
Immune cells promote inflammation during the course of fighting an infection, an im- portant adaptive property; however this action also can be a source of pain, tissue damage, and an obstacle to healing and well-being. Activation of CB2 receptors throughout the body including the brain, where immune cells are called microglia , either by eCBs or the cannabinoids in marijuana, tells the immune cells to slow down releasing the chemicals that trigger inflammation.
This effect is directly analogous to what we described for the brain, where eCBs serve as a brake to the release of neurotransmitters. Clinically, the need to control swelling, itching, and pain is the reason why corticosteroids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs are such widely used medicines.
Recent research findings suggest that cannabinoids may be especially promising in reducing dangers of chronic inflammation in the brain, which is believed key The cannabinoid system appears to be primordial, since it exists in nearly all species of animals so far investigated, even very simple ones like microscopic hydra.
The immune modulating effects of cannabinoids also appear to hold promise for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as diabetes and multiple sclerosis. These studies clearly show that the effects can be variable and difficult to predict with precision, but marijuana provides therapeutic benefits across a startlingly broad range of conditions and has an unparalleled record of safety.
Cannabis is used by inhalation smoking or vaporization , ingestion eating, drinking, or absorption through the mucus membranes of the mouth or, more rarely, topical application rubbing into the skin. Inhalation is a considerably more rapid and efficient delivery method than ingestion, since the cannabinoids, terpenes and other chemicals pass readily across the lining of the lungs straight into the bloodstream.
The effects and quality of the high are also somewhat different. Vaporization or ingestion is safer for the respiratory tract than smoking and creates a far less telltale odor. Burning cannabis or just about anything else for that matter creates harmful chemicals, known as reactive oxygen species, that may damage the mouth, throat, and lungs.
However, heating cannabis in a controlled manner to a temperature just below ignition of the plant material releases the lighter chemicals including the cannabinoids without actually burning anything or creating the reactive chemicals found in smoke. Vaporization may also provide a differ- ent quality of high, since it may produce a different mixture of volatilized compounds. Interestingly, though prolonged smoking has been shown to damage the lungs and bronchial tubes, large-scale population studies have failed to find any link between cannabis smoking and lung cancer or other respiratory ailments.
Since the cannabinoids THC and cannabidiol CBD have both been shown to have cancer-fighting properties, scientists speculate that cannabinoids may have a prophylactic effect against damage that the tars and other potentially harmful chemicals present in cannabis smoke would otherwise cause.
As rapid as the onset of effects is when cannabis is inhaled, it is slow when eaten. When cannabis products are ingested, the cannabinoids pass first through the stomach then are absorbed across the lining of the intestines into the blood, which passes through the liver and changes most of the THC into hydroxy-THC.
While hydroxy-THC is also psychoactive, it may create a different kind of high. Serious scientific studies have attempted to determine what factors affect how much THC is absorbed from a joint. Another study found that the second half of the joint delivers more THC than the first half. Clearly, more research is needed on the question of how long to hold each hit so get to work! However, there is now a solid scientific basis for the practice of letting your buddies start a joint and getting your first hit after it comes back around to you.
The physiological workings of cannabis include some effects that we recognize as getting high, others that are medically beneficial, and some that are both. As Michael Pollan decreased appetite, decreased activity of the scribes in his book The Botany of Desire, intestines and decreased nausea, red eyes, the human-cannabinoid interaction has dry mouth, analgesia pain relief , and de- given marijuana an evolutionary survival advantage persuading humans creased muscle spasms.
She makes my heart sing. Rick James for updates and infocannabis areforgenerally to severe memory impairment, possible paranoia or panic, near-certain overconsumption of snack foods, then sleep. However, cannabinoids and the refor updates and more info ceptors that absorb them are notand there justinfo for updates more or updates and more info for humans to be able to get high.
The cannabinoid system appears to be primordial, since it exists in nearly all species of animals so far investigated, even very simple ones like microscopicfor hydra. Many plants make substances that have biological effects in animals; humans have taken advantage of this to develop drugs derived from these substances, including morphine from poppies, aspirin from willow bark, and cancer drugs from periwinkle, to name a few.
The use of cannabis and its products spread quickly throughout the world and is now cultivated in climatic zones from the Arctic to the equator. Cannabis evolved on its own for hundreds of thousands of generations, but since its properties were discovered by humans, it has been bred intensively to optimize particular characteristics. Cannabis fiber, produced from the stalks of the plant, is used to make tough cloth, paper, and rope.
Though all cannabis plants are of the same species, the varieties typically cultivated for their seeds or fiber are known as hemp. The third product, the flower and the resin that coats them, is used therapeutically and recreationally. Cannabis resin contains the group of substances collectively known as cannabinoids, of which Tetra-hydro-cannabinol, usually referred to as THC, is the chief psychoactive component.
THC and the other 87 identified cannabinoids are unique to cannabis. No other plant produces them, although frankincense and cocoa may contain small amounts of compounds that bind to some of the same receptors. Plants grown for their THC content are commonly called marijuana.
The many uses of this multi-faceted plant have historically made it a valuable crop, and today there are collectively more breeding programs for marijuana than any other crop.
As the U. Gardeners who take this path join an international breeding program as soon as they transfer some of their genetics i.
In the 40 years of this modern cannabis breeding program, growers have developed diverse varieties and cultivation methods that are quite efficient at producing the desired product: Marijuana varieties differ in many ways, including growth characteristics such as: Each variety flourishes best under particular environmental conditions. For the most part, potency is a factor of genetics. Some plants have the genetic potential of producing high-grade marijuana and others do not.
Marijuana is usually dioecious; i. Occasionally monoecious plants, or hermaphrodites, appear and produce both male and female flowers. Such hermaphroditic plants are most common among some varieties native to south Asia, but can also result from environmental stress such as inadequate light or nutrition.
Because they fertilize females just as a true male plant does, they are considered undesirable and are removed from the garden as soon as they appear. Marijuana grown in the wild or with traditional methods outdoors has an annual cycle that begins with germination in the early spring. The plant grows vigorously for several months as the days lengthen and begins to flower when it reaches a critical time period in late summer or early fall. In nature, marijuana is a fast-growing annual plant, although some varieties in warm areas over-winter, going dormant as the days shorten and then returning to flowering the next summer.
Marijuana does best in a well-drained, high-nutrient planting medium and requires long periods of bright, unobstructed light daily. All varieties set seed in the fall as a result of changes in the weather—the seeds drop as the plant dies. When growing indoors and in greenhouses, the cultivator has complete control of the environment. The grower determines when the plants are started and when they flower.
This book is about how to produce the best marijuana under controlled conditions, whether indoors, in the greenhouse, or even outdoors. The word cannabis is an ancient one, dating back past Latin and Greek to Thracian or Scythian times.
As the contemporary name of a type of plant, Cannabis Sativa Linnaeus L. Linnaeas, who devised the modern system for classifying and naming species, concluded that the genus Cannabis sativa had but one species, which bears the same botanical name.
The genus is currently classified as belonging to the Cannabaceae family, which also includes hops Humulus sp. Modern phylogenetic studies and gene sequencing indicate that Cannabis sativa L. This would not be the first time that Cannabis sativa L.
There has been a similar evolution of thinking on how many species of Cannabis sativa L. In , soon after Linnaeus identified it as a single species, the influential biologist JeanBaptiste de Lamarck claimed the plant he found in India should be classified as a separate species, which he named Cannabis indica.
This name would be included in various pharmacopoeias to designate cannabis plants that are suitable for the manufacture of medicinal preparations. In the 19th century, other botanists proposed separate species classifications for cannabis plants indigenous to China and Vietnam. But by the 20th century, difficulty with definitively distinguishing between any of them had led most botanists to conclude, as Linnaeus did, that all cannabis plants belong to a single species. Certainly all cannabis plants satisfy one of the chief criteria of a species: There are different ways to define a species.
Cannabis ruderalis is probably the progenitor wild variety. The alleles or genetic traits of ruderlis are mostly dominant, indicating that the competing traits 2 3 4 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 1. Male flower bract 2. Female flower bract 3. Male flower 4. Bunch of male flowers 5. Unfertilized female flower 6. Maturing seed Mature seed in perianth Mature seed Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Magnoliopsida Order: Rosales Family: Cannabaceae Genus: Cannabis Formal Botanical Description Cannabis is an annual, dioecious, flowering herb.
The leaves have serrated leaflets. The first pair of leaves usually have a single leaflet, the number gradually increasing up to a maximum of about thirteen leaflets per leaf usually seven or nine , depending on variety and growing conditions. At the top of a flowering plant, this number again diminishes to a single leaflet per leaf. The lower leaf pairs usually occur in an opposite leaf arrangement and the upper leaf pairs in an alternate arrangement on the main stem of a mature plant.
Cannabis normally has imperfect flowers, with staminate "male" and pistillate "female" flowers occurring on separate plants. Occasionally, individual plants bear both male and female flowers. Although monoecious plants are often referred to as "hermaphrodites," true hermaphrodites which are less common bear staminate and pistillate structures on individual flowers, whereas monoecious plants bear male and female flowers at different locations on the same plant.
Cannabis is wind-pollinated and produces "seeds" that are technically called achenes. Most strains of Cannabis are short day plants, with the possible exception of C. Polyploid individuals have been artificially produced. Cannabis plants produce a group of chemicals called cannabinoids, which are secreted by glandular trichomes that occur most abundantly on the floral calyxes and bracts of female plants. For instance, flowering in ruderalis begins soon after germination and is not dependent on the length of daylight; this characteristic dominates crosses.
The stems grow to a height between from 3'' 0. South of the foothills, cannabis cultivation is practiced throughout India and Southeast Asia. Since there are no laws prohibiting it in Antarctica where researchers from many countries work, it is safe to assume that cannabis has spread its roots there, too.
Cannabis sativa L. Also unusual is the fact that cannabis is an annual yet its closest botanical relative, hops, is a perennial. The palmate leaves can range from a spread of a few inches approx 5cm to more than a foot, while the five to seven sharply serrated leaflets vary from long and thin to broad and stubby. The range of characteristics that selective breeding can produce is astonishing. The terrific subtleties of this plant allow gardeners with different goals to strive for their ideal plant.
Marijuana enthusiasts have the pleasure of exploring the myriad effects, flavors, and odors that these varieties have to offer. We often hear that varieties of marijuana have different tastes and highs because they contain varying ratios of can- psychoactive qualities of THC.
And some studies have indicated that CBD may affect THC uptake in such a way as to reduce some negative psychological effects, such as anxiety.
While the high is what most users notice, marijuana can have many other effects. Researchers have determined that the human body has a second type of cannabinoid receptor, named CB2, to which CBD binds.
As a result, they have amassed other defenses against predators and competitors. One of their main strategies is chemical warfare. They produce oils and other chemicals designed to repel enemies. Others kill, sicken, delay maturation or affect their metabolism.
THC and the terpenes were developed as part of this arsenal. For example, clinical trials on pain control indicate that a mix of THC and CBD produce the best analgesic effect. Much research remains to be done on the immune-modulating functions and other possible therapeutic applications of cannabinoids, including their possible role in fighting cancer tumors and control- TERPENES If cannabinoids, other than THC, are not contributing to the high, then we look at other ingredients in the smoke-stream.
Terpenes are major components of marijuana resin, just as they make up the largest percentage of aromatic essential oils contained in most plants. The scent of most flowers, herbs and spices are composed of these oils. When therapists use plant oils in aromatherapy, or when you use natural incense, perfume, or other scent to set the mood, you are inhaling various combinations of terpenes.
They have the power to take you up or down, help you relax or focus, feel anxious or satisfied. You recognize the presence of terpenes when you pinch that bud and take a whiff. Grapefruit, Silver Haze, Blueberry, Real Skunk—each of these odors brings a recognition of the type of high that the sample will explode into your brain. Plants produce terpenes for one of three reasons: Before flowering, the odors are faint.
As flowering progresses and the plant is more invested in protecting it, the odor grows. As the bud ripens, whether seeded or sin- By temporarily altering brain function, terpenes affect mood, sensitivity, and perceptions, including balance and pain. This indicates that the odors deter animals that would eat the plant, including larger browsers.
Chemically speaking, terpenes are composed of repeating units of isoprene, which is a five-carbon unit chain or ring with eight hydrogen atoms attached C5H8. Terpenes use the simple isoprene units as blocks to build molecules with 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 carbon units; they also twist and turn the molecular structure to form simple chains or three-dimensional polycyclic structures.
In addition, terpenes can form bonds with other molecules which affect how animals and plants react to them. We can sniff out the answer. They may expect a certain kind of experience based on the odor. Interestingly enough, THC and the other cannabinoids are odorless. What these connoisseurs are smelling are terpenes, the essential oils of plants.
Terpene levels increase during the dark period and reach their peak just before dawn. During the day they evaporate and fill the surrounding air with odor to warn predators. By the end of the day, at dusk, terpene and cannabinoid levels are at their lowest. Depending on how terpenes stack against each other, they create different aromas. Most of the aromas that we associate with plants are the result of terpenes and flavonoids.
Humans can smell and taste these compounds, but that is not the only way they affect us. Aromatherapy uses the inhalation of essential oils to regulate mood, sleep patterns, acuity, and healing processes. For example, lavender oil is a soothing agent and relaxant; rosemary is used to focus attention and provide a sense of satisfaction.
These effects are a result of the combination of terpenes and other chemicals found in the oils of these plants. Some terpenes may affect the high because they lock into receptor sites in the brain and modify its chemical output. A few, such as thujone, one of the main terpenes in wormwood which is used to make absinthe , bind weakly to the CB1 receptor. Others alter the permeability of cell membranes or the blood brain-barrier, allowing in either more or less THC. Others affect serotonin and dopamine chemistry by shutting off their production, affecting their movement, binding to their receptor sites, or slowing their natural destruction.
Dopamine and serotonin, two of the main Age, maturation, and the time of day can affect the amount, and perhaps ratios, of terpenes. As plants mature, their odor gets more intense and sometimes changes as they ripen. Plants are constantly producing terpenes, but they evaporate under pressure from sunlight and rising temperatures.
That means plants have more terpenes at the end of the dark period than after a full day of light. You will find more pungency earlier in the morning. Climate and weather also affect terpene and flavonoid production. The same variety of marijuana can produce different quantities and perhaps even different types of oils, depending on the type of soil in which it is grown or the fertilizers used.
The terpenes described below are those generally most abundant in marijuana, though individual plants may differ widely both in total percentages of terpenes and in their ratios. It is also present in high amounts in hops, lemon grass, West Indian bay tree used to make bay rum , verbena and the plant from which it derives its name, mercia.
By temporarily altering brain function, terpenes can affect mood, sensitivity, and perceptions, including balance and pain. When terpenes are mixed, as they are in natural plant oils, they each play a role in affecting brain function. Over terpenes have been identified in marijuana. There are actually many more when one considers the multiple variations of each terpene.
For instance, the characteristic citrus odor found in fruit rinds differs by type and even variety of fruit—oranges and lemons have different odors, and their terpenes, called limonenes, are mirror versions of each other. This is due to slight differences in the amounts of limonene, as well as other compounds that contribute to citrus elements.
Some terpenes appear only occasionally in marijuana, while others are found all the time. The percentage of particular terpenes and the ratios in which they are found vary by plant variety.
You experience this yourself when you notice different varieties have specific smells, indicating their individual essential oil makeup. Interestingly, hops and both groups of cannabis low-THC hemp and high-potency marijuana —contain similar complements of terpenes. One researcher found that the oil of common black pepper piper nigrum also has a group of terpenes similar to cannabis.
Terpenes are produced in the trichomes, the same glands where THC is produced. Its odor is variously described as clove-like, earthy, nutty, green-vegetative, and citrus. The various odors are the result of slight differences in the overall essential-oil makeup. All of these flavors and odors are commonly used to describe cannabis.
Myrcene is a potent analgesic, antiinflammatory and antibiotic. It blocks the actions of cytochrome, aflatoxin B and other pro-mutagens that are implicated in carcinogenesis. It is also present in small amounts in many essential oils associated with anti-depressive and uplifting effects.
Myrcene and THC are likely synergists, meaning a combination of the two molecules create a stronger experience than either one alone. Myrcene may affect the permeability of the cell membrane, allowing more THC to reach brain cells. Slightly overripe mangos contain large quantities of myrcene. Eating a mango minutes before using marijuana gives the myrcene time to enter the bloodstream and start crossing the blood-brain barrier.
Myrcene may help THC cross the barrier by opening the pathway or less likely, it might carry the molecule with it. The combination of THC and myrcene creates a stronger high, faster. Limonene is the second, third or fourth most prevalent terpene in cannabis resins, depending on the variety. Everyone is familiar with the odor of citrus resins—they explode into the air when a fruit is peeled. The exact odor is determined by the structure of the terpene. Plants use limonene to repulse predators.
For instance, flies have a group of receptors wired directly to the fly brain that are similar in function to the taste buds on our tongues. One of them detects noxious chemicals and responds to limonene as a toxin.
Limonene has anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-cancer activities. It inhibits the Ras cancer gene cascade which promotes tumor growth. Since limonene is such a potent anti-fungal and anti-cancer agent, it is thought to protect against the Aspergillus fungi and carcinogens sometimes found in cannabis smoke streams.
It synergistically promotes the absorption of other terpenes by penetrating cell membranes. The result is increased systolic blood pressure.
In one test, participants reported an increase in alertness and restlessness. Various limonene analogs can cue the brain to sexuality, buoyancy or focused attention. Limonene sprays are used to treat depression. It has a sweet, woody, dry-clove odor and tastes pepper-spicy with camphor and astringent citrus backgrounds.
B-Caryophyllene, ingested in large amounts, blocks calcium and potassium ion channels. As a result, it impedes the pressure exerted by heart muscles.
Applied topically, it is an analgesic and is one of the active constituents of clove oil, a preferred treatment for toothache. It docks on the CB2 receptor site, the same site for which cannabidiol has an affinity. Thus it may help reduce inflammation. In a recent experiment, a group of experienced marijuana users smoked a joint with caryophyllene added.
All but one reported good feelings and were slightly giddy. The other individual had positive feelings but was more contemplative. It added a slightly woody taste to the bouquet.
It is the major component in turpentine and is found in many other plant essential oils in Pine Rosemary, Sage Pinene is likely to give the true skunk varieties, ones that stink like the animal, much of their odor. It is also a bronchodilator. The smoke seems to expand in your lungs and the high comes on very quickly since a high percentage of the substance will pass into the bloodstream and brain. It also increases focus, self-satisfaction, and energy.
This might seem counterintuitive to experienced marijuana users because Afghani Skunk experiences are often calming or sedating. This is caused by the presence of terpineol, which is often found in combination with pinene.
Many additional plant oils contain minute quantities of it. Pinene is used medically as an expectorant and topical antiseptic. It easily crosses the blood-brain barrier where it acts as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; that is, it inhibits activity of a chemical that destroys an information-transfer molecule. This results in better memory. It is a minor constituent of many plant essential oils.
It is used in perfumes and soaps for fragrance. Terpineol is obtained commercially from processing other terpenes. That may be explained by the fact that terpineol is often found in cannabis with high pinene levels, as mentioned above.
Its odor is masked by the pungent woodsy aromas of pinene. The camphor-like overtones of Silver Haze varieties are unmistakable. The high of these varieties does have a calming effect, in addition to its psychedelic aspects. This indicates there may be a large amount of borneol present in these varieties. It is a constituent of pine and cedar resin but is found in many other plants, Artemisia verted into it.
It is found in small quantities in many essential oils. Commercially, it is derived from artemisia plants such as wormwood and some species of cinnamon. In aromatherapy, cypress oil high in DeltaCarene is used to dry excess fluids, tears, running noses, excess menstrual flow and perspiration. It may contribute to the dry eye and dry mouth experienced by marijuana users.
It is refined from lavender, neroli and other essential oils. Humans can detect its odor in the air at rates as low as one part per million ppm. Linalool is being tested now for treatment of several types of cancers. It is also a component of several sedating essential oils. It is implicated in liver damage when used in very high dosages. It is found in tiny quantities in marijuana. Pulegone is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; that is, pulegone interferes with the action of the protein that destroys acetylcholine, the The way terpenes interact with one another and their resulting effect on brain activity provides fascinating territory for another level of exploration and creativity for seed breeders.
By learning the odors of the terpenes, you may be able to predict the mindaltering properties each lends to a bud. Eucalyptus chemical the brain uses to store memory. It has a camphor-minty odor similar to pulegone. It is also found in other fragrant plants and in minor amounts in marijuana.
It is used to increase circulation, pain relief and has other topical uses. Cineole easily crosses the blood-brain barrier and triggers a fast olfactory reaction.
Eucalyptus oil is considered centering, balancing, and stimulating. A creative mind and sense of intuition are necessary to achieve success in this field.
While some herb is strictly pleasing to the mental palate, taste can also be tantamount to the buzz for the cannabis connoisseur. The range of flavors expressed by the genus cannabis is extraordinary. No other plant on the planet can equal the bouquet of smells and tastes available from cannabis. The spectrum of possible smells and tastes a human can experience is large and complex. Like its counterpart, categories branch out from the general to the more specific.
Some of these are already well known and represented among widely available cannabis varieties, while others require some cross-breeding to achieve. Some of the most desirable bud bridges multiple categories, creating a complex sensory experience. Note that aroma and flavor vary by growing method and also between various stages of the plant.
The aroma of a live bud on the plant, a dried and cured bud, and the smoke on the inhale and exhale, may all be different from each other. The physical palate of cannabis is a wondrous dimension, important in distinguishing the good from the superb in the weed world.
Capable of being refined, one's palate is best educated through experience. The map that follows is meant to aid the discriminating stoner in charting the territory. Happy travels. This has allowed breeders, growers, and users to take a good look at the analysis of some of the bud they are growing and using.
Still, this field requires more investigation. Each recipe produces a slightly different effect. Each is an adventure. All these varieties contain ample amounts. Between 15 and 16 an unidentified terpene A appears on all the charts. It is insignificant in the Hazes. It imparts aroma to beer, but also has both anti-inflammatory effects and is used as a sedative and to relieve stress. Varieties containing high quantities may relieve pain, reduce inflammation, lower stress and induce better sleep.
On the other hand, it might not be the best therapy for concentration or even socializing. Two varieties that are often used medically, White Widow and Cheese, both contain more of it than the other varieties do. You can see the test results of other varieties on the Green House Seeds website. See Terpene Key. To simplify interpretation we can combine numbers 1 and 3- alpha and beta pinene, 8, 11 and alpha and terpinene and terpinolene, and 13 and cis and trans-ocimene.
The pinene helps create the more acrid pungent odors, as does terpenine and terpinolene. In addition to the terpenes that were identified in several of the varieties, Trainwreck and White Widow had similar unidentified spikes, which delineates a bit of their similarity. Cheese also contained terpenes not identified by the test. These terpenes have not been found in other varieties tested by Greenhouse. This may account for its unusual aroma and high.
Most of the varieties had high levels of 1, 2, 3, 7, 9, 10, 13, 14 and It is interesting that White Widow and Trainwreck have wide bands at 7, beta-myrcene. Myrcene makes the blood-brain barrier more porous, allowing more THC to get to the brain faster.
This results in a faster, more powerful initial experience and perhaps a more intense high. Terpinolene and its cousin terpineol, which was not tested for, have sweet odors reminiscent of apple blossoms or lilac.
They also are responsible for serious couch-lock. On the other hand ASH is lower in cineole than the others. Cineole helps THC pass through the blood-brain barrier, so it is slow to come on.
The wide selection of characteristics has been developed from the two potent sub-species or varieties: Another sub-species, ruderalis, is some individual plants will thrive no matalso available and is used to create auto- ter what conditions occur in a particular flowering varieties that do not wait for season. Most varieties available today are shorter days to begin budding. The kush hybrids of these types, and bred to have varieties, sometimes called Afghani, are a the best characteristics of each.
Beginning in the s, breeders crossed different sub-group of indicas. The reNorthern Mexicans, marijuana plant has been sult was some of the and indicas. Marifirst domesticated substantially changed. The ratio and Afghani-Kush. A second generation of of THC the psychoactive ingredient also breeders included landraces from Brazil, varies. The differences in native climate South Africa and Burma. There is little change tance.
Most of the varieties offered today of weather in more tropical areas, where are many hybridizations away from the every year tends to resemble the last. In original landraces from which they started. Drought one year may be followed by cloudy, rainy or sunny weather. For the population to continue, the plant group needed different individuals that survive and even thrive under those specific conditions. Thus, in any season, no matter what the weather, some plants will do better than others.
Indicas, including Kush varieties, have broad general characteristics: Afghan x Skunk. The Afghani Mazar-i-Shariff part is a very short Christmastree-like plant. Original sativa from the Hindu Kush region, Flowering: Indica plants were developed for resin content, which was removed from the flowers to make hashish.
They are a variant of indicas and have many of the same characteristics. Some growers look for extrawide leaf blades. The difference between Kush varieties and other indicas is one of nuance, rather than distinct difference.
These plants require a long time to mature because they originated in areas that have a long season. The highs they produce are described in such terms as psychedelic, dreamy, spacey, and creative. The buds usually smell sweet or tangy and the smoke is smooth, sometimes deceptively so.
Sativa plants grow in a conical, Christmas-tree form. The leaves have long, narrow serrated blades, wide spacing between branches, and vigorous growth. They often grow very tall outdoors and are difficult to control indoors.
Sativas have long, medium-thick buds when grown in full equatorial sun; under artificial light with inadequate intensity, or even under the temperate sun, the buds run, or are thinner, longer and don't fill out completely.
A few weeks after germination, the plants begin to produce flowers while continuing to grow. They tend to be short, between 1'3' 0. The seed bank tried using a Romanian variety that grew flowers along its new growth. Some varieties that are available commercially are more determinate.
They produce flowers as the plants grow larger and when a critical time period occurs, they quickly stop growing vegetatively and form a bud. These varieties include the LowRyder series. If indica and sativa varieties are considered opposite ends of a spectrum, most marijuana plants today fall between the two ends.
Since the s, seeds from the Dutch and other seed companies have been introduced in traditional marijuana growing areas all over the world including Mexico, Jamaica, and Even in traditional cannabis-growing countries, the marijuana found there is often the result of several crossed lines.
For example, Jamaican ganja is probably the result of crosses between hemp, which the English cultivated for rope, and Indian ganja, which arrived with the Indian immigrants who came to the country.