If you're thirsty for knowledge, speed reading is one the best skills you can reading speed—but the point of this course is to become faster readers, so the. As you probably expect, this course will also teach you to read much faster and at the same reading speed will have settled to about w.p.m. Many people can think at rates of .. access up to 5 PDF/TXT eBooks per month each month). want to, of course. I wrote and organized Speed Reading For Dummies so that you can start reading it anywhere you want. Consult the table of contents or “How .
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Speed reading will allow you to read more materials in the same time that you spend always time yourself on the exercises within the course where indicated. PDF | Fluent reading is essential for successful comprehension. One dimension of reading fluency is reading rate, or reading speed. Because of the importance. Our Focus. SPEED. COMPREHENSION. RETENTION to the following article: teshimaryokan.info . Speed Reading Mastery Course. Package .
Its clean and simple interface has both a daytime and nighttime theme to match reading conditions to your environment and you can use the app to add your own ebooks DRM-free epub , upload Microsoft Word documents, paste URLs to specific web pages or even enjoy a classic novel from the app's built-in library. Simply navigate to http: Learning vocabulary in another language. Bismoko and Nation and Cramer came to the same conclusion after experimental research in Indonesia and Malaysia respectively. Gardner, D. Students who do a speed reading course are very likely to increase their reading speed as measured in wpm on speed reading course texts from the beginning to the end of the speed reading course cf.
Early studies investigated whether such programmes are best conducted in the first or the target language. West found a transfer effect from training in reading in English to first language Bengali reading speed and promoted the desirability of conducting speed reading courses in the first language.
Bismoko and Nation and Cramer came to the same conclusion after experimental research in Indonesia and Malaysia respectively. Despite this, it is speed reading courses in the target language, English, rather than in multiple first languages that appear to have been developed e. Very little research has focussed on the use of such courses, although recently Chung and Nation reported on the effect of an English language speed reading course on the English language reading speed of 40 first-year university students in Korea.
This course was delivered over a 9-week period, and almost all students gradually increased their reading speed, with most of the increase occurring over the first 10 texts. There was no evidence that any increases were maintained, which is an important consideration if learners are to enjoy ongoing benefits from following a speed reading course. West compared reading to physical activities such as swimming, and the analogy holds for this concern about a practice effect.
Just as an athlete aims to reach peak performance through a training programme, the learner may reach peak reading speed after repeated practice with a series of controlled texts but fall away from that peak when the programme ceases.
It seems reasonable to suggest therefore that if apparent gains in reading speed at the end of a speed reading course are the result of a practice effect, these gains may not be maintained when reading speed is re-assessed at a later date. Speed reading courses and their effect on reading authentic texts in an English as a second language ESL context Macalister, a. Learners on a university preparation programme read the first 17 texts in a speed reading course as usual, with the remaining three texts being used as a delayed post-test several weeks after the end of the speed reading course.
While most of the 29 students, as in the Chung and Nation study, increased their reading speed from the beginning to the end of the speed reading course, around one-half recorded no change or a decrease in reading speed from the end of the speed reading course to the end of the language programme, when the delayed post-test readings were delivered. While this may suggest that, at least for those students who decreased in reading speed, a practice effect was operating it was also the case that almost all the students in the study recorded an increase in reading speed from the beginning to the end of the language programme.
All five studies reported here support the use of speed reading programmes but questions—and, as noted above, scepticism—about their use and effectiveness remain. A critical question is whether any gains in reading speed transfer to other forms of reading.
The claims for increased reading speed in Chung and Nation and Macalister a are based on changes in reading speed on the speed reading course texts, which are carefully controlled for length and lexis. Whether there is a relationship between increased reading speed on speed reading course texts and reading speed on authentic texts i. The remainder of this article, then, addresses the following question: Method This study was conducted with four intact classes on a university preparation course at a New Zealand university.
Most teachers within this programme were familiar with and used speed readings particularly Millett, a, b , usually in the manner discussed by Millett where they form the third part of a daily fluency programme that begins with 5 minutes of writing, followed by a 2- or 3-minute speaking activity based on the writing. For this study, one teacher agreed not to use a speed reading course with her class, while the other three did.
The teacher who did not use a speed reading course chose instead to incorporate extensive reading into the programme using class sets as described in Macalister, b. At the beginning of the course, all students sat a form of the Vocabulary Levels Test or VLT Nation, , ; this test samples various vocabulary frequency levels and provides information to guide future vocabulary learning.
If you get less than this, these are the words you should learn first. Speed reading courses and their effect on reading authentic texts course are written within a restricted lexicon.
The texts in this teacher-selected book are written with the 2, most frequent word families plus the AWL, word families that occur frequently across a range of texts in a corpus of written academic English Coxhead, ; while the texts in the speed reading course book may have been more difficult than ideal for a few students, they were chosen because they fitted the class profile.
As Table 1 suggests, strictly speaking the groups were not quite comparable, and this caveat needs to be borne in mind when considering the results.
Table 1. Gardner, The extracts were selected and, when necessary, slightly edited. Table 2. These results are shown in Table 3, and suggest that the authentic texts chosen for use in this study were no less challenging, and in some cases much less so, than those included as course materials.
Speed reading courses and their effect on reading authentic texts which would typically be used in-class for teacher-directed intensive reading with a language focused learning goal. Teachers were asked to use the authentic text reading in a particular way see Appendix 1. There was a small amount of pre-reading activity to prepare the students for the reading; this was designed to orient the learners to the text and to introduce them to any potentially problematic proper nouns.
There was also an explicit focus on a meaning-related activity after reading, to encourage reading for general understanding. The instructions also prepared the learners to start reading at the same time, and to be interrupted at a certain point during their reading. They were asked to mark on their text the point they had reached after 90 seconds, and then to continue reading to the end.
The implementation of the study is summarised in Table 4. Table 4. Research design summary Timing Measure Description of activity Week 1 Vocabulary The students take this test at the beginning of the course. It is used Levels Test for diagnostic purposes. Teachers decide which speed reading course book to use with their class on the basis of this test. Week 1 Speed reading All students read the first of the three Orwell texts O1. Orwell text Results Thirty-six students in the four classes completed all three authentic text readings and missed no more than one of the speed reading texts used for measurement purposes; in fact, all but six of these students completed all.
This was in line with the results reported by Macalister a , where a similar proportion of students did not maintain their gains in reading speed. The 12 students from the comparison class that did not use a speed reading course did not show the same pattern. These students read three speed reading texts at the start of the language programme and a further three at the end. While 7 of the 12 recorded an increase in reading speed from the beginning to the end of the language programme, 5 did not.
Furthermore, the size of the recorded increases for this class was smaller than those for the others. The real interest, however, lies not in the results for the speed reading texts but for the reading speeds on the three authentic texts. The immediate impression was one of a great deal of individual variation over the three texts.
Seven different patterns were identified, with three being judged to be positive, three negative, and one neutral. The three positive patterns were a a steady increase from one reading to the next; b a drop from the first to the second reading, but a rise on the third reading to a faster reading rate than on the first; c a rise from the first to the second reading, followed by a drop on the third reading but to a faster reading rate than on the first.
The three negative patterns were a a steady decrease from one reading to the next; b a drop from the first to the second reading, followed by a rise on the third reading but to a slower reading rate than on the first; c a rise from the first to the second reading, followed by a drop on the third reading to a slower reading rate than on the first.
The neutral pattern was one where results for all three readings fell in a 10 word band. As can be seen in Table 5, only students in the comparison class showed a neutral pattern. Table 5. As shown in Table 4, the first authentic text O1 was read by students at the start of the language programme and before the speed reading course. The second authentic text O2 was read at the end of the speed reading course.
The final authentic text O3 was read at the end of the language programme; the column O1—O3 in Table 6 shows the recorded difference in reading speed between the first and third authentic texts. Table 6. Group mean reading speeds on authentic texts in wpm.
Table 7 shows the mean reading speeds for the two groups of students in the current study at each authentic text reading. The changes in mean reading speeds are also shown in Figure 1. As can be seen, the two groups were reading at dramatically different rates at O1, but after the speed reading treatment there was no significant difference on reading speed. At O3, however, the two groups again diverged.
This may be related to the practice effect of the speed reading course wearing off Macalister, a. Also of interest is the fact that only the students who did a speed reading course recorded mean wpm increases on the authentic texts.
They appear to have reached realistic reading speeds for English language learners reading texts which contain unknown elements Cobb, ; Fraser, Discussion This study showed gains for students doing a speed reading course in reading speed as measured in wpm on speed reading texts and on authentic texts.
When considered alongside the results of earlier studies, a number of conclusions can be drawn. Students who do a speed reading course are very likely to increase their reading speed as measured in wpm on speed reading course texts from the beginning to the end of the speed reading course cf. Students may increase their reading speed as measured in wpm on speed reading course texts from the beginning to the end of a language programme whether or not a speed reading course forms a component of the language programme cf.
However, students who do a speed reading course tend to show greater gains in reading speed than those who do not, even if their gains from the end of the speed reading course to the end of the language programme may not be maintained at peak levels cf. Macalister, a. Students who do a speed reading course are significantly more likely than those who do not do a speed reading course to read an authentic text more quickly at the end of the speed reading course than they did at the start of the speed reading course.
They are also more likely to read an authentic text more quickly at the end of the language programme than they did at the start of the language programme. It is likely, however, that a speed reading course may not, of itself, be sufficient to increase and maintain reading speed. The challenge for teachers is to decide how best to reinforce the reading speed gains that a speed reading course can deliver. Opportunities to read, possibly through an extensive reading programme, are needed so that learners can maintain their gains in reading speed.
Speed reading courses and their effect on reading authentic texts Concluding remarks The study reported here was a preliminary investigation of the effect of speed reading courses on the reading speed of authentic texts, and has a number of limitations which would need to be addressed in a future study. These limitations include the small size of the sample, the lack of comparability between the two groups, and the use of only one measure of reading speed transfer.
In future studies it would also be useful to include a measure for comprehension. Furthermore, this study was a quasi-experimental one, reflecting the reality of working with intact classes in an authentic learning context.
As a result, not all variables of interest could be controlled and two questions that arise from this study also deserve to be the focus of further attention. The first relates to the effect of receptive vocabulary knowledge on changes in reading speed. While higher VLT scores did not necessarily equate with faster reading speeds on an individual basis, it was the case that the class without a speed reading course had higher mean VLT scores see Table 1 and faster mean reading speeds see Table 7 at the beginning.
The question is whether the lower gains in reading speed can be attributed to the absence of a speed reading course, or whether students with this proficiency profile have less room for improvement in reading speed although, as shown in Table 7, they have not reached target reading speeds suggested by Nation, , p. If it is the latter, then this has pedagogical implications as it raises the supplementary question of when speed reading courses are most effective as a teaching intervention.
The second question of interest is triggered by the recognition that six of the nine students who had a speed reading course and showed a decrease in reading speed on authentic texts Table 6 belonged to the same class. This may suggest that teacher variables played a role in the outcome, and that the identification of optimal delivery conditions for a speed reading course could be worthwhile.
As part of that inquiry, the interplay between speed reading and the opportunities for reading offered by an extensive reading programme could also be considered.
It would seem, therefore, that there is still more to discover about the contribution of speed reading courses to reading fluency development, and that future studies will continue to build on the work of Bismoko and Nation , Chung and Nation , and others. References Bell, T. Extensive reading: Speed and comprehension. The Reading Matrix, 1 1. Retrieved from http: English reading speed and the mother-tongue or national language.
RELC Journal, 5, 86— Chung, M. The effect of a speed reading course. English Teaching, 61, — Cobb, T. Response to McQuillan and Krashen A new academic word list. Speed reading courses and their effect on reading authentic texts Cramer, S. Increasing reading speed in English or in the national language. RELC Journal, 6, 19— Fraser, C. Reading rate in L1 Mandarin and L2 English across five reading tasks.
The Modern Language Journal, 91, — Gardner, D. A corpus- based investigation of narrow reading. Reading in a Foreign Language, 20, 92— Grabe, W. Reading in a second language: Moving from theory to practice. Cambridge University Press. Heatley, A. Range [Computer software]. Unknown vocabulary density and reading comprehension.
Reading in a Foreign Language, 13, — Hudson, T. Teaching second language reading. Oxford University Press. Iwahori, Y. The app is integrated with two unique speed reading tools called BeeLine Reader and Spritz.
BeeLine Reader takes a color-coded approach to speed reading by adding a color gradient to each line of text. The color gradient helps guide your eyes from the end of one line of text to the beginning of the next line, essentially helping you read faster and taking some of the strain off your eyes.
Designed to minimize eye movement, which takes up as much as 80 percent of your time spent reading, the developers of Spritz claim that the tool can help you read at a rate of up to 1, words per minute. Visit ReadMe! This particular app has two-speed reading tools where you can read a book or document one word at a time or optionally use the highlighter tool to highlight every word one by one as it moves along each line of text.
Its clean and simple interface has both a daytime and nighttime theme to match reading conditions to your environment and you can use the app to add your own ebooks DRM-free epub , upload Microsoft Word documents, paste URLs to specific web pages or even enjoy a classic novel from the app's built-in library.
Visit Outread. Similar to Outread, Accelerator is another speed reading app for iOS devices with a clean interface and news reader integration with popular apps like Instapaper and Pocket. It comes with three different themes to match your reading environment and makes it easier than ever for you to save articles you find on the web to speed read later.
Although accelerator doesn't let you upload any of your own ebooks or documents, you can at least use it to read text, rich text, and Word documents from your email app and some other apps as well. Unlike other speed reading apps in this list, this particular app displays a line of text in the center of the screen, moving through it at a certain customizable WPM rate like a carousel.
Visit Accelerator. This particular app is a great option for Android users who can't use the iOS-only Outread or Accelerator apps because it looks and functions similar to them both.
It has a light and dark theme with a simple, minimal interface and displays every word you're speed reading in the center of the screen as it moves through each line of text. You can also easily switch between speed reading mode and regular reading mode whenever you like. Visit Reedy. Readsy is a slick little tool that takes a web-based approach to speed reading.
Simply navigate to http: Like ReadMe! Customize the WPM rate using the dropdown menu below the Spritz reader and use the menu at the top to access the editor whenever you want to see the full text of what you're reading and optionally make edits to it.
Visit Readsy. If you own an Apple Watch or a Wear OS formerly Android Wear smartwatch, you may be interested in checking out Wear Reader if you like the idea of speed reading from your watch when you're on the go.
In speed reading mode, each word will flash on the screen one by one at a customizable WPM rate, with convenient fast-forward and rewind functions available in case you miss something and need to go back and then forward again.
A traditional reading mode is also available so you can read the text just like you would on any device, using the scrolling function to move up and down the page. And if you're a Wear OS user, you can switch to night mode to make nighttime speed reading easier on your eyes.
Visit Wear Reader.
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Updated February 10, What We Like Add your own reading material. Very effective.
Clean user interface. What We Don't Like Limited search feature for books. Difficult to adjust speed while reading. What We Like Easy to customize. Incorporates latest speed reading technologies.
Offline available with premium plan. What We Don't Like Not as intuitive as other options.