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TIME SAVER STANDARDS FOR INTERIOR DESIGN AND SPACE PLANNING. Karl Ryan Candinato. Loading Preview. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. Preface Time-Saver Standards for Interior Design and Space Planning is a professional handbook dealing with the planning, design, and detailing of interior . Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data seventh edition The Reference C Suspended ceiling systems William Hall C Interior partitions and.
The wider work surface provides space for pots, dishes, and other utensils as well as small appliances, and makes it easier to work on several things at once or to cook using many ingredients. From standard furniture dimensions to architectural woodwork details, you'll find a vast array of time-saving data and details. The pine paneling on the walls might be left unfinished, waxed, or painted. In no case should between this unit and that of the primary where applicable, of the visitor seating to be this distance be less than the 30 in, or Plenty of storage space for footballs, beach equipment, basketballs, skates and other cumbersome items. The workstation must be compact and relatively easy to move through a standard 81 -cm doorway.
But now, Time-Saver Standards for Interior Design and Space Planning, Second Edition goes even further to truly make the classic interior design reference the standard in its field.
From standard furniture dimensions to architectural woodwork details, you'll find a vast array of time-saving data and details. Editors Joseph DeChiara, Julius Panero, and Martin Zelnik have brought together contributions from well-known architectural and interior design firms to give you details derived from actual designs and working drawings, showing various solutions for typical design problems encountered in interior architecture.
You get a wide range of typical layouts and residential spaces, offices, conference rooms, and reception areas, in addition to details of bars, restaurants, and public toilets. This exciting new edition includes new international examples and metrification — and provides you with full coverage of healthcare spaces, educational spaces; home offices; videoconferencing spaces; green design; project forms and schedules.
Two outstanding sections cover historic styles and woodworking. Architecture Nonfiction Publication Details Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education Imprint: McGraw-Hill Professional Edition: We want your feedback! Back Settee With Tooled Uather. Hoo h 1 The. Hardwood flooring Carpet Chinese Chippendale striped.
Plain papers Vinyls in modern pattern geometric patterns Combinations of above French Provincial 18th-century Smooth piaster Hardwood flooring Aubussons American Wallpaper in scenic or Parquetry Homespun carpet. Lounge Chairs. Twin bed 39 39 75 Youth bed 33 36 66 76 Ultimately.
After all. Many manufacturers also make and sell undersized pillows for cribs and youth beds as well as oversized pillows for the larger beds. Dorm bed 32 36 75 80 Be sure to take your clients to see and test Hospital bed 36 36 75 80 the bed or mattress selected. Tables 1 and 2. For Quern. The human eye comprehends detail oniy within a limited cone angle about 2Vi min- utes of arc.
They vary both with the medium being used and with the type and quality of material being projected. The size of the viewing area is determined by three dimensions: Thus an object 20 feet away and 6 feet long appears the same as a similar object 1 0 feet away and 3 feet long. Its size is always based on the size of the image to be viewed.
They have not yet been pre- cisely determined by scientific methods. The generally ac- cepted values. Charles R. Knoll Internationa! Vecta YEAR: If such traffic is necessary. When the living room is combined with the dining area. Planning Considerations Planning considerations should include ade- quate floor and waii space for furniture groupings. Figure 3 shows a living for dining. There are. During social activities. This is extremely tight. With n E n regard to the luxury end of the scale.
D c rooms. Desirable conversation distance is Fig. Dwelling n 1 1 units with three or more bedrooms should have separate dining rooms or clearly defined dining areas.
Circulation within the living room should be as direct as possible and yet not interfere with furniture placement. In any case. Figure 5 shows that a space 12'6" x 15'6" should be provided in order to accommodate seating for five around a in-diameter cocktail table.
When planning furniture arrangements. The piano. It should be noted that these diagrams are not intended as models for complete living room layouts. Figure 7 suggests that a space at. They are intended only as guidelines to illustrate minimum clearances for preliminary planning purposes. Including plans. The design of the cabinet should take into account the actual electronicand other equipment to be housed and the clearances Involved for operation.
Power outlets should be coordinated and located so as to conceal unsightly wires and cables. PLA N " ivll'-o 8 Fig. Based tor and designerare essential. Sofas Traditional: LI Contemporary: Solas Contemporary: Desirable room for seating is a clear 42 in all around the dining table.
Criterion The amount of space allocated to dining should be based on the number of persons to be served and the proper circulation space. Space for accommodating the following sizes of tables and chairs in the dining area should be provided.
Commentary Size of the individual eating space on the table should be based upon a frontage of 24 2 in and an area of approximately 2 ft In. The following minimum clearances from the edge of the table should be provided: In sizing the separate dining room. This area may be com- bined with the living room or kitchen.
This preference appears to stem from two needs: The location of the dining area in the kitchen is desirable for small houses and small apartments. Where only one dining location is feasible. Appropriate space should be provided for the storage of china and large dining articles either in the dining area itself or in the adjacent kitchen.
In plan tor a typical armless dining chair and a dining chair with arms. It should be noted that the clearances Indicated relate to chairs with depth dimensions of 20" and" 22". Table space is 24" per person. With arm chairs at the ends. Seating for four 2 requires 31 ft. There space behind the chairs to edge past one side and one end. Round tables. A 48" long table seats 4 and requires Corner bench. Since these illustrations are intended only as guidelines Dining space with benches..
Since these data come from two sources. A hutch or buffet is typically about 18" deep. A 48" long table seats 4 and of differing 2 requires 26 ft. A dining room for A 42" wide table Is common.
To assure adequate space for convenient use of the dining area. Because of the room layout. Length for primary bedroom: Widths less than 9'0" will usually require Each bedroom shall have at least one A larger proportion of the bedroom floor extra area to accommodate comparable closet that meets or exceeds the following area is occupied by furniture than is the case furniture. An interrelationship exists between dress. Figures 1 to 3 illustrate three configurations larger Moreover. For account during the design process.
Each bedroom are all factors that should be taken into The ideal plan would provide a bedroom for requires at least one clothes closet. Clothes closets require a clear depth of two size for a larger bedroom or master bedroom activity space.
Children's bedrooms single beds 3'3" x 6'6" each. Each child needs a space that is his or her and the furniture clearances and room sizes the size and scale of furniture.
One shelf and rod with at least 12 doors. At least one-half the closet floor shall be the bed and other furniture. Closets chairs 1'6" x 1'6" each. The location of activity It is essential to incorporate in the 4. Ample storage is essential. For secondary bed- room size should be 10'0"x12"0" exclusive of The minimum room width shall be deter. These two factors compli.
A master bedroom should accommodate level and not more than 12 inches above floor Privacy. Department of Housing and Urban Develop- ment recommends the arrangement Illustrated in this diagram. The U. Net area: ST Women. Flooo R Finish t i2?
Height Men. T 'i 'i Cabinet T? Shoe Racks. Metal 4a? H Approx 12 Garments on hangers H 16" desirable. See Details number ot garments without crushing. The bathroom should be convenient to the bedroom zone. B 28 min. Towel bar 5. F 30 E D 52 min. Soap dish at lavatory may be integral Or Obstruction! Mirror and medicine cabinet or equiv- alent enclosed shelf space ssescssas Activity a Zone [ 6.
Each complete bathroom should be pro- vided with the following: In all cases where shower head is installed. D 18 E 36 min. Toilet paper holder at water closet Line ot Wall 3. Linen storage should be accessible from the bathroom.
C 24 min. Grab-bar and soap dish at bathtub lu 0 2. E 18 Given the great variability in body sizes to be accommo- dated within a single family. J A iavatory height above the floor of 37 to 43 in. In order to establish the location of mirrors above the lavatory. Figure 2 explores.
It should be noted. Two-lavatory bathroom. Note 2 storage space under the lavatories and in a floor-to-ceiling unit. A wail-hung iavatory instead of a vanity 2 squeezes into 2'-6" width and Consider this idea for installing a half-bath In a closet or under a stairway. A corner shower. This bathroom is too smaii for a wheelchair. A 2-lavatory bathroom with adequate room at the toilet and each lavatory. This plan also includes a bidet. Storage is In ft available. Even with generous storage space it takes only 2 the same space as many non-compartmented bathrooms.
It is as large as two bathrooms but costs less because of fewer fixtures and less plumbing. Two doors to each compartment are undesirable. This 3-fixture bathroom has excellent storage but is 2 only Five fixtures.
Limited storage space available. Storage is under the 30" vanity and on shelves over the toilet. With fixtures in separate compartments. Large 3-fixture bathroom. Although not usually a space saver. Consider a pocket door Three people can use between the compartments. PlKll6ri- trf: Do not use oily putty or plumbing sealants with marble. Requirements existing installation must be sound.
Recommended uses for alteration of ceramic-tiled areas where modernization or achange of design is desired in residences. But such a height does not necessarily accom- modate the body dimension of all users for all tasks. Such asystem could accommodate not only those of smaller and larger body size. B 40 Clearance between Appliances K Z The logical answer is the devel- opment of kitchen cabinet systems capable Fig.
All must be responsive to human dimension and body size if the quality of interface between the user and the components of the interior space are to be adequate. Certain cooking activities. Standard kitchen counter heights man- ufactured are all about 36 in. In estab- lishing clearances between counters.
Refrigerator doors. Range Workzone G Q 35 max. The range workzone clearance. In this regard. Figure 2 indicates a minimum clearance between appliances of 48 or 1 21 9 cm.
D The i n. The standing figure shown in broken line. The anthropometric basis in.
The resulting through traffic reduces the compactness and efficiency of the plan. It should be located at sink center. It sometimes is closed off on one end. If dishwasher Is desired. If dishwasher is desired. The corridor or gallery kitchen is typically accessible from both ends.
The broken U-shaped plan often results from the necessity of locating a door along one or two of the three walls of a typical U- shaped scheme.
A triangle perimeter of 23'0" or less is usually indicative of a relatively efficient kitchen layout. For combined work centers.. Work centers for the following equipment. Minimum clearance height between 3. Residential Spaces 4. At least 9 in from the at one side for serving and storage of utensils edge of the sink and range and 16 in at the Height of shelving and counter tops and staples.
Refrigerator space with counter space pliances opposite each other.
Wall cabinets Circulation space A minimum of 40 in should Height of counter tops should be 36 in. Range space with base and wall cabinet adjacent corner cabinet.
This same sink and wall cabinet 24 in. Sink and base cabinet with counter side of the refrigerator is recommended. Maximum height of wall shelving 74 in. Minimum clearance should elevation be not less than 3 in. Dimension B. Cabinet protection should be at least 14 in asbestos millboard covered with not less than gauge sheet metal 0. Dimension D: Dimension F. Dimension E: Clearance for D. Dimension C: Drawer and countertop space shall also be provided.
Opt for the 15 in. Plan for light above a rangetop and over the sink.
Since the wall behind a sink dictate a distance of 30 in. With the increased use of such Your need for light is greatest over eiectricai appliances. General storage re- quires space for linens. No room count is allowable for this type facility. A good light there a significant problem. A workable alternative is found in fixtures installed in an extended soffit. But wall if A fan mounted in the wall is the a wider span you're taller.
Kitchenette Item 0-bedroom living unit. Included in this category are self. A single fixture. Choose incandescent. The if space is minimal. Kitchen 1. Frameless base cabinets are also deep. Most are 1 Four-drawer base cabinets are available in available in widths ranging from 9" to 48? Most are available in widths of 24?
Tilt-Out Range Hoods: Most cabinets are available in widths ranging from 9" to Frameiess are 13Vfe" deep with doors. Frameless base available in a three-drawer style in widths cabinets are 24 3A" deep. Framed base cabinets are 24" ments. Except Oakcrest. No Center Medallion.. Often overlooked are clearances for verify local code requirements. The designer should check seven heating elements as well as modular is the method of securing the dishwasher in requirements with the manufacturer.
Refrigerators clearance must be verified with the manufac- but the designer is cautioned to carefully Refrigerator door swings and clearances are turer. In addition. Manufactur- of critical importance. Accessi to 'plumbing adjoining cabinetwork. Some washers are fairly well standardized in terms sides and top of the refrigerator and any of the larger ranges consist of modular of overall dimensions.
Dimensions shown are for planning purposes only. A Countertop or wall-mounted oven. Cabinets and Base Removed 3. Clear open space. Bottom-hinged door. Pull-out board preferred with side-opening door. In Fig. Since removable base cabinets and adjust- able height counters are not now products that are readily available for purchase.
No other changes have been made to the kitchen. The fixed accessible features specified in ANSI 4. The adaptable features are removable base cabinets at knee spaces and counters that can be adjusted in height or fixed at a lower than standard height. The adaptable features for kitchens spec- ified in the standards are shown in Figs. The wider work surface pro- vides space for pots. When not needed. The shelf is used as a transfer surface for dishes as they are placed into or taken out of the oven.
When an oven with a side-opening door is used. The standards specify that when the wall oven is not self cleaning. When an oven with a drop-front door is used Fig. See ANSI 4. Even if a self-cleaning oven is installed. When the knee space is under a cooktop. People who high and there is no knee space for maneu. Cooktops in lowered counter seg. When a cooktop is installed in a lowered expose a person in a wheelchair to the hazard ventional ranges because the surface is too counter.
The controls Cooktops with smooth surfaces are pre. An moving them. The Medical 5 height of the highest shelf above the floor should be limited to between 78 and 81 in. Subject of shelf face section The size of books.
Limitations for shelving to serve children will differ and are indicated in Fig. Volumes per Linear Foot of Shelf Based on Subject by which to design residential library Standard stack section 3 ft wide x 7H ft high with 7 shelves shelving or to project the number of books that can be accommodated on a unit base Volumes per foot Volumes per single because of the many variables involved.
Economics 8 It is possible. Seven History 7 volumes per foot of shelving can be used Law 4 84 as a rule-of-thumb to project capacity.
The front of the shelf is supported by the vertical members and the back of the shelf is nailed to the plywood back. In this design Hugh Newell Jacobsen. This simple trim piece acts as framing for sides. These built-in bookshelves and bar unit were developed for a residence on the Eastern Shore of Maryland. Sizes noted here are comfortable averages. But if interiors are planned to accommodate large units of equipment such as that required for table tennis. Not all games occupy floor areas indicated as necessary for those diagramed on this page.
Dimensions of game equipment and floor areas required for its use are both subject to variation. Size Where used 4 ft 8 in x 8 ft 6 in. Note how the recessed fluorescent tube fixtures indirectly light up all the glasses and the 2" open slot in the bottom shelf indirectly lights up the liquor bottles on the back bar shelf. Note also that the bar front is slightly padded with foam rubber and the entire bar top is finished with dark brown leatherette.
The entire front bar has recessed light fixtures in the ceiling above. The would complement each arrangement. Space needed by a sin. Type and size of equipment Auxiliary equipment area.
Ironing Board Fig. Moistureproof surfaces are needed for 31 x 26 in pretreating and sprinkling of clothes.
The To control moisture in the room. Adequate storage for washing equip. Straight-line arrangement: Planning Suggestions 26 x 26 in. Space around Ironing board. Additional coun- ment and supplies should be located near the Overall dimensions of areas will vary with ter space can be provided by the tops of the place of first use. In locating the washing equipment con. A tall storage cabinet for laundry supplies 7. Drying areas should be accessible for use under all climatic conditions.
Stacked arrangement: No dryer and washer. In sideration should be given to convenience of space required will depend on the type of this cabinet. A In. This will permit a second person to pass through when someone is doing the laundry.
Scale 1: If a washer and dryer are located opposite each other. If the space in front of the automatic washer and dryer Is a corridor. Clothes may be hung for air drying without interfering with other household activities.
Other laundry related activities such as ironing. Noise from laundry appliances can be shut off from the rest of the dwelling. Occupants may wish to use the bathroom when laundry is being washed or dried.
Disadvantages Providing this extra room increases the cost of the dwelling. Mechanical ventilation can be provided economically for both functions. The most frequently mentioned advantages and disadvantages of these various options are listed below. The laundry area may be separate or combined with the bathroom.
Temporary holding or storage of clothing to be washed or ironed is made easier. Disadvantages A bathroom will usually accommodate only washing and drying facilities.
The bathroom sink may be used for hand washing. DRYER room. Separate Laundry Advantages A separatespace can be used for other activitiessuch as sewing and hobbies. This facili- 3. Fioor and waii finishes in bathrooms are usually resistant to high humidities. The tops of the laundry. Direct access to the outside for clothes drying is likely to be easier than from laun- dries located in a basement or on a second storey Kitchen sinks are usually sizeable and can be used for laundering.
The space above the appliances may be used as a linen closet.
An alcove adjacent to a corridor will accommodate only a minimum-sized laundry area. Additional plumbing costs are usually small. Noise generated by running appliances cannot easily be shut off from the rest of the dwelling. Other laundry related activities. The appliances can be hidden from sight when they are not in use. Noise generated by running appliances can be easily shut off from the rest of the dwelling. Disadvantages Noise generated by running appliances cannot be easily shut off from the rest of the dwelling.
Grease and cooking smells can be passed on to clean clothes. Disadvantages Danger of cross-contamination through the handling of dirty washing during food preparation. Disadvantages Laundry must be carried up and down although automatic dryers have eased stairs.
Convenience and time-and-step saving are easily achieved by placing the elements in their natural order of use: Width 16 18 5. Viewing in mirror: Table obstructed on one side 28 32 3. Light should be adequate for the Length 42 60 activity. The amount and kind of storage required varies Width according to the quality and frequency of Table.
Working surface 2. Use of Space Minimum Adequate ple purposes. An area especially planned for sewing. A minimum sewing area should include Height range 36 median the machine.
Top to floor 70 72 Clearance in front of mirror ft Width 3 4 Length 10 Clearance while fitting self. Most houses need storage space for Length 56 72 sewing materials and equipment. The location of the shelf just above the rod is Lengths essentially a function of rod height.
The Reach clearance between the bottom of the shelf and the top of the rod should allow for easy Garment removal of the hanger. The two drawings of the plan view of the human figure illustrate clearances required for don- ning a coat or putting on a pair of stockings.
Special ance shown between the hanging garment for and the storage shelf or between opposite HL by garments couid be reduced about 60 per- cent The authors contend. The degree to which this dimension can be reduced is a question of the ievei of Also comfort the user is prepared to tolerate in exchange for the floor space saved.
Wherever possible or prac- the closet shelf should be located within tical. The height shown for the high shelf has been established based on fifth percentile male and female data in order to place it within reach of individuals of smaller body size. Any shelf located at a greater distance should be used primarily for storage that requires only Infrequent access. Figure 3 illustrates two various types of Comfortable walk-in storage facilities.
For single-occupancy bedrooms: Deluxe cool white tubes match daylight for selecting clothes. A wider access space within the children's clothing. A fluorescent fixture over the door is recommended for lighting a closet.
This requires less wall space than a full 24" by 60" front opening. Three closet may be used as a dressing area. The rod. Men's garments in Women's garments in Heavy jackets and coats 3 Coats and jackets: Medium-weight jackets. This diagram shows dimensions for rods. Other garments: Dress coats. Research shows that each person needs at least 48 inches of rod space for hanging clothing. CKWT Wall Dimension - Bottled detergents cleaner.
Multiple-stacked Linen Shelf wrap-around storage storage shelving. Center pole Optional door racks gives extra support.
Storage baskets pjfttiritittttlj detergents and pack brushes. Wall Dimension - available space. Optional Optional full-height m baskets and door door storage rack. Top View storing household Make a clean sweep cleaning items just of cleaning with full- where you need them. Wide storage and sundry items. Single and hang with upper double hang with storage. Extra low.
Tailor-made for couples with a 2nd bedroom. Shoe rack storage area for keeps sneakers and dresses and coats. Double hanging with lower hang with shoe rack shelving height. Extra wide shelf Double hanging space for clothing. Plenty room. Full shelves with Plus lots of room for central storage unit her long dresses and allow easy storage coats — his shirts.
Shoe sports equipment. Doubles as baskets. The perfect for coats and other his and hers closet. Stores toys and balls. The perfect K. Off-center and small cases. Storage baskets slide out and Sliding hold dish cloths. Two full- storage capacity for length shoe racks. Central shelving underwear. Front View Front View Single hang with Single hang with upper storage and upper storage and central shelving and full-width shoe basket unit.
Single hang Walk-In. Ideal for master bedroom. Full-length clothes hanging space. Sliding and shorter gar- suits baskets for easy ments on the other. Expands easily to Four sliding baskets accommodate future provide multiple needs. Single hanging So well designed it for clothes. Office Spaces General offices and multiple workstations Private offices Electronic workstations Conference rooms Reception areas Furniture. Within these buildings. Over the life span of a typical office building.
In many instances redesign may be necessitated solely by the effect of technological change on the methodology of transacting business. The details alluded to include such items as trading desks. It is necessary. Also included are illustrations and dimensional data pertaining to typical office furniture. Basic Workstations. The so-called general office takes on a ters, credenzas, etc. In its edge of architectural woodworking, as may accommodate both the buttock-knee and simplest variation it may be nothing more be related to the design of such elements, buttock-toe length body dimensions of the complex than several standard desks with can be quite helpful.
If an overhang is provided or the returns located within a room or space. In its Accordingly, this part includes basic plan- desk's modesty panel is recessed, the visitor more sophisticated and ergonomically de- ning criteria for general office design, in seating zone can be reduced due to the signed form, the genera!
The workstations include desk surfaces, general office spaces. The systems understanding the anthropometric consid- tion. The worktask zone must be additional space is needed to allow for Provision for power and lighting is quite large enough to accommodate the paper- drawer extension of the lateral file, Not only common.
In no case should between this unit and that of the primary where applicable, of the visitor seating to be this distance be less than the 30 in, or B 76 2 - C 76 2 - E 4 - F 76 2 - G 35 6 - H 40 6 - J 45 7 - L 4 - M 61 0 - N 73 7 - M in cm aaaoaaaoappa Workstation Zone A F The Nonautomated Task.
Square footage Open Screened nonautomated workstation standards for the No requirement of equipment or task for Privacy required for reading, working, thinking, task are developed primarily according to task privacy, concentration calculating, meetings, confidential phone calls, profile, equipment, conferencing, and privacy elimination of visual and acoustical distractions requirements.
Task Profile: Processing paper on work surface with quick turnaround. Continued flow of material is processed as it arrives at the workspace and is passed on to either another function or to group storage. Storage for permanent files and reference materials minimal. Reference material accessed Telephone tasks infrequently.
Primary work surface 76 x cm No Secondary work surface Filedrawers Shelves. Task Profiie: Typewriter the primary tool forprocessing paper. Continued flow of materia! Reference material access may be frequent. Tasks may require Guest chair concentration. Typewriter the primary processing paper. Reference materia! Tasks may require concentration.
Limited conferenc- ing required at the workspace. Guest chair Primary work surface Need see and hear co-workers to Secondary work surface or subordinates of secondary File drawers priority. The Nonautomated Task Open Screened No requirement of equipment or task for Privacy required for reading, working, thinking, privacy, concentration calculating, meetings, confidential phone calls,.
Same as 1 with addition of extended conferencing requirements at individual work- station. Same as 3 with addition of extended conferencing requirements at individual work- station. Data Entry. Limited volume of supplies and permanent records kept at the workspace. Electronic equipment used for. Multiple Wortetatinns. Size ofworksurface, length and depth o!
Clustering of workstations will ultimately result in the use of less floor area, but at the expense of major ergonomic considerations. Decisions relative to both acoustical privacy and personal space are often sacrificed in the name of economy. Multiple Workstations. Multiple workstations can result in effi- cient utilization of space and sharing of expensive computer terminals and equip- ment. If use of computer terminals is inten- sive, individual CRTs should be provided.
Figures 5, 6, and 7 each show eight worksta- tions, yet the setups range in area from 2 to ft. Furniture size, function, and ergonomic considerations all affect setup. It is not unusual to have two or more persons share an enclosed office space. In planning this type of office space, both circulation and clearance become critically important. Door swings, the extension of file drawers, and points of entry must aii be carefully considered.
Such a The design of the private office requires a in cm situation which shows a knowledge of the basic dimensionaJ require- is illustrated in Fig. Such a desk is often station and, where applicable, of visitor seat- A While a minimum. Desks are also available in generally carefully.
It these standard is K Figure illustrates the range of Providing for the appropriate leg clearance of 1. N Many private executive offices are being Buttock-knee length must also be designed with desks that do not conform 0 P Line of Wall Or Obstruction. C H The private offices illustrated in Figs. Each office layout should be carefully re- viewed with the client to ensure that all programmatic functions have been met. Of- fices of this size do not easily accommodate an independent conference function.
These architectural working drawings reflect the custom design of a storage wall lor a partner in a law office. Careful analysis shows the Incorporation of file, book, and coat storage within afloor-to-celiing mahogany wood unit. The incorporation of an undercabinet task light Is almost always required. Many private offices require the detailing of custom credenzas and storage units. The sophistication and complexity of such details can significantly influence the budget for the space as well as the time of installation.
Figure 25 represents a "high-end" approach, while Fig. New electronic technologies, together the head, measured with the subject sitting Buttock-heel length is the horizontal with the advent and proliferation of the relaxed. The surface. This is sometimes referred to ergonomic considerations related to this new Shoulder height is the distance taken as buttock-leg length. It is essential that the design of Shoulder breadth is the maximum hori- tended vertically.
Vertical grip reach is usually measured human factors in order to avoid physical Elbow to elbow the distance across is from the grasped in floor to the top of a bar discomfort for the user. The location of the the lateral surfaces of the elbows measured the right hand while the subject stands erect keyboard, angle of the visual display terminal, with elbows flexed and resting lightly against and the hand within which the bar is grasped adjustability of the chair, field of vision, provi- the body with the forearms extended is raised as high as it can be conveniently.
Note that a hip breadth measurement of a bar grasped in the right hand while the a variety of anthropometric and ergonomic can also be taken with the subject in a subject stands erect and the arm is conve- planning data and details for use as reference standing position, in which case the defini- niently outstretched horizontally without ex- in the design of the electronic workstation. Figure 1 illustrates guidelines for use in lower torso.
Thumb tip reach is the distance from establishing preliminary design assumptions Elbow rest height is the height from the the wail to the tip of the thumb measured for a workstation display console. Since the top of the sitting surface to the bottom of the with the subject's shoulders against the wall, types of displays and the nature of the tasks tip of the elbow.
Certain basic factors abdomen intersect. Anterior should be noted anthropometricaliy. The use Knee height is the vertical distance points are usually located on the chest or of an adjustable chair will permit the eye from the midpoint of the kneecap.
An adjust- the portion of the thigh just behind the knee imum distance, including arms, across the ment range between 1 5 and 1 8 in, or Adjustability, back of the knees barely touching the sitting in cm however, will be of little value if the vertical surface. B 16 min. If such distance is not ess than D 15—18 adjust. Buttock-toe length is the horizontal dis- tance from the rearmost surface of the E The location of the display of the top should align with the standard sight line for buttocks to the tip of the toe.
Since the eye and the head can rotate within certain limita- tions and, in so doing, increase the area that can be scanned, displays can be located above the standard sight fine when abso- lutely necessary should also be noted that It.