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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Pennick. Nigel. Magical alphabets / Nigel Pennick. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. 1. Magic. 2. Read The Pagan Book of Days PDF - A Guide to the Festivals, Traditions, and Sacred Days of the Year by Nigel Pennick Destiny Books | • A d. Complete Illustrated Guide To Runes Nigel Pennick Runes Nigel Pennick [PDF ] [EPUB] teshimaryokan.info is a platform for academics to share.
A symbol in its own right. But its position in the legen- darium as the successor of the Temple of Concord. English ISBN This is a key work in the understanding of Ad Frankl. As with every place whose roots were set in archaic times. Air and Fire. But politi- cal..
It conducted its rituals in lodges orientated east-west. Wren altered the orientation by a few degrees from that of the old medieval cathedral. At the time of the Great Fire. The spirits are among those ascribed to Wednesday. Emergent speculative freemasonry. They are the names of those Mercurial spirits. Architecture and Theology.
And on the east side of your shop. Tarmiel and Baraborat. That do fright flies from boxes. There was only one post-Great Fire church that blatantly defied orienta- tion. It is St Edmund. In Westminster. In place of the medieval lanes and alleys. Christopher Wren drew up a plan for reconstructing the city. Wren wrote a letter of recommendations for the desirable qualities of new churches which had the comment.
The church was duly orientated to the true cardinal directions.. In his later life. St James. The Romans were famed for their straight roads that ran across the empire. Cornhill mainly by Hawksmoor all stand a few degrees north of due east. The unique oval-polygonal St Benet.
The British legendarium ascribed them to the ancient British king Belinus. London was to have straight avenues linking fine classical buildings.
I think. St Augustine and St Michael. The Masque No. Wren argued that in London churches should be located on insular sites not hemmed in by other buildings. But politi- cal.. There would have been two separate alignments of five churches. One impression was made by the twentieth century Baroque artist Rex Whistler Aligned upon prominent characteristic structures. It shows a perspec- tive view of a Wrenian straight street. Despite the fame of his abortive plan.
The effect on other cities in Great Britain if this plan had gone ahead can only be imagined. Romney 61 Act of Parliament. Royal Institute of British Architects Journal. Nicholas Hawksmoor.
Greenwich St Alfege. Limehouse It was intended for a site in Bethnal Green. The Anne. October Statute at Large. IX Anne. Another of his churches. According to his thesis. Lines on the Landscape. Early British Trackways.
Smith Square built has four identical towers at the four intercardinal corners. Nelson Road. His first church built for the Commissioners was St Mary-le-Strand. Along with Nicholas Hawksmoor. Hawksmoor drew up plans for rebuilding Cambridge along right lines. The Streets of London. James Gibbs was appointed as Surveyor to the Commissioners. Robert Hale. This is certainly deliberate. The Old Straight Track. It had thirty-two straight The meridional alignment at Karlsruhe.
Germany T imes and F orm 39 of Gibbs and Hawksmoor. Its foundation stone was laid at the centre on the twenty-eighth of January. In post-Reformation England. General Steuart laid the foundation stone of St George. A horoscope is drawn up in advance. The foundation stone of St Martin-in-the- Fields. Capall Bann. Hanover Square. To the building. A History of St George. Electional Astrology Foundation laying marks the important moment when a building begins to come into physical reality.
Practical Astronomy during the Seventeenth Century: A Study of Almanac-makers in America and England. T imes and F orm 41 the foundation of colleges. It had a statue of the god Mercury on its apex. John Flamsteed. Caius was founded with Mercury rising. The milieu of astrology was universal in London at the time when the new churches were being located. Patrick McFadzean. Unusual and precise times of stone laying.
So it was natural that electional astrology was employed for major buildings erected after the Great Fire. Seemingly emphasising this. Cambridge University Press. Sir Christopher Wren. The Royal Observatory election has the Sun in the ninth house.
Electional Astrology. The rising sign is Sagittarius. Elias Ashmole Perfect Timing. Northern Earth Mysteries. Limited edition of The Art of Electional Astrology. His Autobiographical and Historical Notes. Elias Ashmole. Flamsteed indicated the exact instant through direct observa- tion with his instruments. Astrological Geomancy: An Introduction. For modern interpretations of the basic principles of electional astrology. The latter two churches were depicted on the cover of the famous 19th century Strand Magazine in which the original Sherlock Holmes stories appeared.
Drawing by Nigel Pennick. Hanover Square — The Pythagorean qualities of number. Measure and Harmony As from the power of sacred lays The spheres began to move. The Hague Chapter 3 Number. John Dryden. Uitgeverij Synthese. This saying is ascribed to Solomon. The Eternal Tradition The underlying principles of spiritual architecture are sacred geometry and number.
Milan Elector of Saxony. Sacrale Geometri: Verborgen Lijnen in de Bouwkunst. Chieveley Capall Bann Publishing. Pondera et Mensura.
The principle of number was discussed by Renaissance architectural theorists and applied in their building design. Barocchi ed. In this view. Often seen as the basis of proportion.
Until recently. True order can exist only in harmony with Nature. Traditional building uses true principles. Tract I. They appear in philosophical works published both in Great Britain and what is now Germany. Then life is brought into harmony with the spiritual ideal. These diagrams. Emerging from the symbolic side of medieval sacred geometry. Such architec- ture manifests a spirituality that transcends religious doctrines. Because these elements reflect the eternal structure of the Cosmos.
One important diagram. Thomas Norton. The geometrical arrangement ascending from the underworld to the upperworld is a symbolic model for the London church steeples of Wren and his followers. N umber. Ars magna lucis. The Bristol legen- darium tells how Norton made the red elixir. Athanasius Kircher. This is the Signaculum Mundi Pythagoricum. Other examples of geometric cosmic diagrams published in the seventeenth century.
Atalanta fugiens. Viridarium chymicum. Musurgia universalis. The towers of these London churches are particularly notable as examples of geometrical ingenuity that embody and express the princi- ples depicted in published Hermetic diagrams.
Later Masonic diagrams of the eighteenth century also make use of some of these philosophical motifs. Obeliscus Pamphilius. Stolcius von Stolcenberg. The Pythagorean world-view. The four elements are a symbolic description of the nature of the material world. Pythagoras taught the importance of the divine numerical series: Of the various forms of Tetraktys. In the sixth century BCE Pythagoras had taught that number was the first principle of all things.
Process is usually described as having a threefold nature. They are hypothetical qualities that combine to make particulars. Existent realities.
M easure and H armony 49 Pythagorean Philosophy The principle of number was discussed by renaissance archi- tectural theorists and applied in their practical building design. Material is explicable in terms of the four elements. Pythagoreans described existence by means of the Tetraktys. The two are quite distinct. The divine emanation diagram from Robert Fludd.
Utriusque cosmi… When these elements are combined in certain ways. This tetrad is the archetype of all growing things. When we refer to Earth as one of the four elements. The four elements have their being within the framework of the physical structure of the world. The fourfold model of existence is found throughout the European tradition from the earliest times. The oldest surviving description of the tetrad of principles known as the four elements comes from Empedocles in his text On Nature c.
Aristotle stated that fire is the result of heat and dryness. When Earth refers to the place that gave us birth and sustains our being. Air and Fire. The division of the matter of the world into these four symbolic qualities is the basis for the traditional western understanding of the subtle nature of material existence.
The four elements are. Within them. Within the cosmos. M easure and H armony 51 the modern. This let me further add. On the Pythagorean Philosophy.
And casts new figures in another mould. Pythagoreanism was of interest to the intellectuals of the seventeenth century.. Of The Pythagorean Philosophy. All is in constant motion. Then to be born. And from the odd as from the male. In his poem.. And what we call to die. But death on deathless substance has no force. Or be the thing that formerly we were. Those very elements which we partake Alive.
Ever in motion. De Harmonia Mundi totius. The penta- gram. The line joining two points. The first feminine square. It is the origin of the Golden Section. The first real number with a beginning. Departure from unity. The first centre of the domed ceiling of St perfect number. The Hebrew name of God at the Six: Solid matter.
Foursquare stability as expressed in the square and the cross. Marsilio Ficino. Six is the Mary Abchurch. A simple geometric construc- tion of the heptagon was discovered as late as the seventeenth century by Count Carlo Renaldini Twenty-eight is the second perfect number. Leon Battista Alberti. It was also considered significant because a circle could not be divided geometrically into seven parts in ancient times. This is the first masculine square. Thirty-five is the sum of the first feminine and the first masculine cube: This is the virgin number.
This contains all the archeypal numbers. Thirty-six is the product of the first square numbers. This is the first cube. Twenty-seven is the first masculine cube. In square meas- ure. Alberti stated. IX quest. De re aedificatoria. Four is another divine number.
M easure and H armony 55 architecture by later architects. De Coelo. In the Baroque. Divine presence is often depicted as an equilateral triangle from which emerge rays of light.
To summarize. Diatessaron There are also two composite consonances: These four harmonies are the fourth. Isos and Plagios. Three are ascending scales. The following three simple ratios are considered harmonious: There are limitless possibilities of combination.
The anonymous Greek author of the alchemical text Anonymus places the origin of the four elements in the Cosmic Egg. Diapente 9: The author notes that the four elements are also present in music. Theon of Smyrna.
By combining these in proper ways. Theoria musice and De Harmonia musicorum instrumentorum Philolaos and Jubal or Tubal Cain. Plato taught that the harmony of the cosmos is present in the seven numbers 1. Three ratios are present in the 3.
Its area is 6 square units. In the renaissance.. Jubal presides over six smiths using hammers of differ- ent weight to hit a piece of metal on an anvil. They are numbered in the same sequence as bells. The fourth pictures shows Pythagoras and Philolaus. Each sequence is numbered 4.
The Pythagorean philos- opher Philolaus defined harmony as the unification of the composed manifold and the accordance of the discordance. It takes is name lambda because of its resemblance to the Greek alphabetic character.
M easure and H armony 57 angle with sides with whole-number ratios. The third picture shows Pythagoras again. Each plays a whistle and holds two others. In the second. His book has a fourfold illustration depicting Pythagoras. In the first illus- tration.
In two books. Pythagoras is shown twice. Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. Istitutioni harmoniche Harmonic ratios from Gioseffo Zarlino da Chioggia. De Harmonia Mundi Less than a God they thought there could not dwell Within the hollow of that shell That spoke so sweetly and so well What passion cannot music raise and quell?
The illustration depicts the professor lecturing his students. The divine harmony. What passion cannot music raise and quell? When Jubal struck the corded shell. The School of Athens. Harmony is not brought about by the conso- nance of two tones.
These musical numbers also produce harmony when applied to architectural proportion. To his left are three lines. Beneath the lines is a pair of dividers. His listening brethren stood around And wondering. Some musical theo- rists of the renaissance were actually involved in architectural design. We shall therefore borrow our rules for the finishing our proportions. I conclude that the same numbers by means of which the agreement of sounds affects our ears with delight are the very same which please our eyes and our minds….
Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism. To these was added the Tonus. In the Sesquialtera therefore the longer string must be allowed three. Franchino Gafurio went to Mantua to discuss the building of a tower at Milan Cathedral with the architect Luca Fancelli.
These several concords. The Sesquialtera was so called. We have already observed. This harmony the ancients gathered from interchangeable concords of the tones. M easure and H armony 61 two. But in that concord which was called Diapason. In the Quadruple. But there are three particularly which are most esteemed.
Which interval is the rela- tive distance which this number stands from the other Alberti. The Sesquitertertia is where the longer string contains the shorter one and one third more. Alberti describes the musical mean: The third mean. And this mean number forty will be distant from the greatest number just double the interval which the number of the mean Ibid. The root therefore will be six. In this the proportion between the least term and the greatest. This number six. This geometrical mean is very difficult to find by numbers.
Muses and Fates. It is named after Mount Helikon. M easure and H armony 63 is distant from the least number. Sebastiano Serlio published the use of the helikon in the design of architec- tural features. Although Serlio published sporadically. Because the inter- relation of elements reflects the mathematical structure of the cosmos and hence.
The sacred geometry inherent in the helikon is the essence of classical architecture. The intersection-points of the lines of the helikon produce whole number proportional ratios through similar triangles. De Architectura. This most elegant geometrical diagram is essentially a square divided by four diagonals. Two connect opposite corners of the square. The arrangement of arches known as the Serliana and his geometrical designs for urns and similar finials were adopted by almost all the major British architects working in London after the Great Fire.
At St Martin-in-the-Fields. James Gibbs used the helikon not only for the overall proportional system of width to length to height. St Martin-in-the-Fields. M easure and H armony 65 The Helikon diagram and whole-number ratios.
There are several technical terms to describe the various means by which this harmony can be achieved: The principle of concin- nitas exists in nature. Finitio and Collocatio. In the English edition of De re aedificatoria.
In Roman surveying. Alberti uses the word finitorium that renaissance sculptors used to determine relative position and scale. Leon Battista Alberti: Universal Man of the Early Renaissance. Precision is an important element in this work. The arrangement of every part of a structure ensuring that each is in its appropriate location. Studie decoumenti de architettura. M easure and H armony 67 other the breadth.. Corinthian capital elevation drawing. This magnificent royal tomb..
The original Mausoleum stood at Halicarnassus in Caria. Fragments of it were rediscovered later and are preserved in the British Museum.
Christopher Wren Jr. Two of the buildings described — the Temple of Diana and the Mausoleum — were of the celebrated Seven Wonders of the World. Subsequently its ruins were utilized as a source of building material. They appear in an appen- dix titled Of Architecture. M easure and H armony 69 about ancient monuments were edited by his son. As a mathema- tician. Natural History. The Sepulchre of Mausolus is so well described by Pliny. St Mary Abchurch Bryaxis the north.
The Pilasters then of the Pteron being 24 Feet. Upon the 16 inward Columns rose the Pteron …. Timotheus the south — N. Supposing then in the Order. Timotheus and Leochares. The skill of four famous Artists. It appeared from the City Halicarnassus to the Sea. M easure and H armony 71 Martial. These Architects living before the Time of Alexander. I have computed by just Proportions.
The proportion of width to height is Sir Christopher Wren put a great deal of thought into the architectural meaning of the ancient descriptions by Martial and Pliny and came up with a workable building containing consonant proportions which could have been constructed if needed. The elements of its elevation are interrelated by a series of whole-number ratios. Wren naturally used the English Statute Foot that dates from 12 inches: I have joined the 16 inward Pillars into four Solids.
I known not but they might have something to practise from thence. The Ordinance of the Whole falls out so wonderfully. Weights and Measures. An illustrative Reconstruction by Wren of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus.
M easure and H armony 73 perhaps the local Aegina Foot of mm. Drawing by Nigel Pennick after Nicholas Hawksmoor. His version of the Mausoleum is reproduced here.
It is clearly the origin of the stepped pyramid on a pedimented columnar base that Hawksmoor later built in Bloomsbury. The actual site of the Mausoleum and its dimensions remained unknown until Sir Charles Newton rediscovered it in A History of Architecture in All Countries. Shortly after this publication. John Murray. It was omitted from the book.
Johannes Campanus of Novaro made a version that was influential until the renais- sance. In addition to the known written sources of antiquity. Chapter 4 The Sacred Art of Geometry in Action It is in the public interest to learn and practise the art of geometry. Geometric Possibilities The basics of geometry do not change.
By the mid-seventeenth century. The Thirteen Books of the Elements. In the twelfth century. Geometry is the underlying continuity in sacred art. Euclid and Vitruvius being among the most significant. In sacred geometry. It is because of the integration of these multiple sources in the seventeenth century that the unique buildings erected after the Great Fire of London took the form they did. With the straightedge and compasses.
To the Etruscans. Leon Battista Alberti wrote that the circle was an Egyptian symbol for time. In the fifteenth century. The oldest structures by far in Great Britain are the stone circles. Robert Herrick wrote: Love is a circle that does restless move In the same sweet eternity of love.
In addition. What It Is. Archaic build- ings. The Circle The circle is a most basic form. T he S acred A rt of G eometry in A ction 77 the major geometric figures can be drawn without measure- ment. The geometrician can divide it precisely into two and multiples of two by draw- ing without measurement. These Valentine.
The Egyptian pyramids. It can be again divided into four triangles by drawing straight lines connect- ing opposite corners. Also it should be noted that the simple body has no angles. It is divided into four squares by making a cross connecting the centre of opposite sides.
Deriving from the circle. This also defines the exact centre of the square. As the alchemical text. This also defines the exact centre. The Seventh Key of Basil Valentine states. When all eight lines are drawn. Artis auriferae quam chemiam vocant. Ad Quadratum Perhaps the most ancient form of sacred geometry.
Its internal figure is the octagon. When two equal squares are superimposed at 45 degrees from one another. In the late middle ages. This is the most frequently used geometric form in Roman architecture and the forms later derived from it: The diagonal of the smaller square is the length of the side of the larger one. By repeated creation of squares derived from one another.
Gothic and later classical buildings. The Art Bulletin. This ratio also appears when a square is drawn from the diagonal of the larger square. The Gothic Cathedral. This is a key work in the understanding of Ad Frankl. This can be seen by the records of a meeting of operative masons from various provinces of the Holy Roman Empire that was held at Regensburg in The publication of these principles was a major breach of professional secrecy that paralleled the contemporary publica- tion of classical principles in Italy by Leon Battista Alberti.
The Cube The cubic form. The profession of the architect as a man who was not necessarily a member of the building trade was now able to emerge as something distinct in its own right. This subdivision by squares progresses until the requisite number of smaller components is achieved.
De re Aedificatoria. The diminishing dimensions of the squares are the cross- sections of the pinnacle at various heights. The centre points of the four sides are joined. There is Roriczer. The area of the smaller square is half that of the larger. I have under- taken to explain something of the art of geometry.
Any errors are immediately apparent. Thus the cube is the symbolic embodi- ment of virtue. Vitruvius wrote of the cube: Book V. Jacob van Campen.
These are Temperance. The cube was used as the elemental form in seventeenth century classicism in the Netherlands. Pierre de Roissy wrote.
Hendrick de Keijser. The few surviving parchments demonstrate the primacy of drawing as an art. Drawing by Nigel Pennick after Cyril E. Gloucester Cathedral — By drawing a straight line between the two K. Pieter Post and Philips Vingboons. It appears as the mandorla enclos- ing Our Lady or the Christ. De zeventiende eeuw. But its position in the legen- darium as the successor of the Temple of Concord.
New Haven. Judaic and Masonic symbolism. Vaughan Hart.
Several commentators have noted that the body of the church of St Mary Woolnoth takes the general form of a cube. A symbol in its own right. Afbeelsels der voornaemste Geobouwen. William Richard Lethaby later wrote. Thus the circle and the vesica are the origin of trian- gular geometry. By connecting opposite points with straight lines. The relation- ship between the vesica and the pointed arch is apparent. If the six points are joined by straight lines to adjacent points.
Geometrical analysis of the plan of a pillar in Milan Cathedral. This is one means of drawing the equilateral triangle. The other is using the property of the radius of the circle to its circumference. Some triangular structures were built during the Roman imperial era. But they were uncommon. In the post-Great Fire era. The Georgian Group Journal. From the reconstructed plan. The tomb of the Curii at Aquilea has an upper part supported by three pillars.
The ground-plan is an equilateral triangle measuring 33 feet 4 inches along each side. There are three floors. Representing the Christian trinity. The inner room is a circle in an See Paul Jeffery. This Gothic building has a very unusual geometry. Each side has a Latin inscription of thirty-three characters.
Serlio and Montano illustrated several antique Roman buildings that were based on the equilateral triangle. They were probably small temples and tombs. But it is an unequivocal sign that symbolic geometry and numer- ology were understood and sufficiently valued to be used in at least some buildings of that time.
The internal rooms are hexagonal. The plan is re-drawn by Nigel Pennick after James Gibbs. Se Mona. Frig and Satern. Much has been written about the Golden Section and its application to art and architecture.
Le Corbusier Organic growth is patterned on this system. Matila Ghyka. This is a proportion that exists between two measurable quantities of any sort when the ratio between the larger and smaller one is equal to the ratio between the sum of the two and the larger one. There are no pentagonal churches of the post- Great Fire era in London.
The most notable of all fivefold buildings is the Pentagon in Washington. Few five-sided buildings have emerged from this current. De Divina Proportione by Luca Pacioli c. Plato discussed it as the key to cosmic physics. One of the most influ- ential architects of modernism. Many twentieth century writers detected it everywhere in ancient remains e.
In his Timaeus. The series is constructed additively. Books of Architecture. In Hypnerotomachia Poliphili The Sevenfold Leon Battista Alberti asserted: The renaissance asso- ciation of the heptagon or sevenfold with a goddess was made by Francesco Colonna in his Hypnerotomachia Poliphili In medieval Christianity. This is a cord or rope divided into thirteen equal sections by twelve knots.
A more accurate geometri- cal way to divide the circle into seven equal parts was discovered in the seventeenth A sixfold Roman building on the century by Count Carlo Appian Way near Rome recorded Renaldini That length gives the sevenfold division of the circle.
Neither is accurate. In the next century. One is drawn using an equi- lateral triangle. Sacred Geometry.. The Pagan Book of Days In this revised edition of The Pagan Book of Days the author provides details on auspicious and inauspicious days, holy days of the ancient gods and goddesses, and the eight stations of the year the solstices, equinoxes, and cross-quarter days.
He also includes lunar and solar charts indicating dates of major Pagan celebrations from the year through Full description To continue please click on the following link https: SlideShare Explore Search You. Submit Search. Successfully reported this slideshow. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Upcoming SlideShare.
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