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SHIP KNOWLEDGE: A MODERN ENCYCLOPEDIA Format, pdf This is the world famous Ship Knowledge Encyclopedia by Dokmar. How can you calculate the cargo capacity? For an easy, fun way to help you learn shipping rela- ted terms, download "Ship Knowledge" from the Apple. Ship knowledge dokmar pdf. 05 26 53 -HDC- C WINDOWS. NtUninstallKB LingvoSoft Gold Talking Dictionary English-Spanish. Note that.


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Ship Knowledge a Modern Encyclopedia - Free ebook download as PDF File . pdf) or read book online for free. about ship and all the details. Practical Ships Knowledge for Cadets. June All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted. Ship knowledge teshimaryokan.info Shotiko Gabisiani. Loading Preview. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. You can download the paper by clicking the.

For tougher types of soils, the kind that cannot be simply sucked up, cutter suction dredgers are used. The dinmgfun marks, ,Plimsoll Line and PlilTlsoll Mark are perrnanent marks, Usually t,h',is mearis that they are carvedlinte the null. In general, these vessels are very large. Heavy cargo, steel coils Subscribe to be updated with our new e-books Enter your email address: See also the table "strength summary" and the graph of bending moments. Keeping the construction process manageable requires that a.

The waterplane-coefficient gives the ratio of the area of the water line A and the rectangular plane spanned by Lpp and Brnld. A large waterplane-coefficient in combination with a small block-coefficient or coefficient of fineness is favourable for the stability in both athwart and fore and aft direction. The block coefficient gives the ratio of the volume of the underwater body and the rectangular beam spanned by Lpp, Bmld and T. A vessel with a small block coefficient is referred to as 'slim'.

In general, fast ships have a small block coefficient. The prismatic coefficient gives the ratio of the volume of the underwater body and the block formed by the area of the midship section Am and Lpp. The Cp is important for the resistance and hence for the necessary power of propulsion if the Cp decreases, the necessary propulsion power also becomes smaller.

The maximum value of all these coefficients is reached in case of a rectangular beam, and equals I. The minimal value is theoretically O. When the principal dimensions, displacement and line-coefficients are known, one has an impressive amount of design information, but not yet a clear image of the exact geometrical shape of the ship.

This can be obtained by the use of a lines plan. The shape of a ship can vary in height, length and breadth of the ship's hull. In order to represent this complex shape on paper, crosssections of the hull are combined with three sets of parallel planes, each one perpendicular to the others.

Horizontal cross-sections of the hull are called water lines. This is the water line used in the design of the ship when it is hypothetically loaded. When the water lines are projected and drawn into one particular view, the result is called a water line model. Evenly spaced vertical cross-sections in athwart direction are called ordinates. Usually the ship is divided into 20 ordinates, from the centre of the rudder stock ordinate 0 to the intersection of the water line and the mould-side of the stem ordinate The boundaries of these distances are numbered I to 20, called the ordinate numbers.

A projection of all ordinates into one view is called a body plan. Vertical cross-sections in fore and aft direction are called buttock lines. These cross-sections are parallel to the plane of symmetry of the ship. When the buttocks are projected and drawn into one particular view, the result is called a sheer plan. The diagonals are cross-sections of fore and aft planes that intersect with the water lines and verticals at a certain angle.

On the longitudinal plan they show up as straight lines. The curvature of the water lines and buttocks are compared to each other and modified until they are consistent. When this procedure is executed, the results can be checked using the diagonals. The most common diagonal is called the bilge diagonal.

Nowadays the lines plans are heing made with the aid of computerprograms that have the possihility to transform the shape of the vessel automatically when modifications in the ship's design require this.

When the linesplan is ready, the programs may be used to calculate, among other things, the volume and stability of the ship. As shown in the lines plan below, both the water lines and the buttocks are drawn in one half of the ship. In the body plan, the frames aft of the midships are drawn on the left side and the fore frames are drawn on the right. The linesplan is drawn on the inside of the skin plating.

The reader can tell from these plans that a ship will be slimmer with smaller coefficients, when the water lines, ordinates and buttocks are more. For instance, a rectangular forecastle has only one water line, one ordinate and one buttock, the coefficients are I. Of the many drawings, only the most important ones are mentioned here. In general, the following demands are made:. The general arrangement plan, safety plan, docking plan and capacity plan have to be submitted to the Shipping Inspectorate for approval.

The general arrangement plan, midship section drawing, shell expansion and construction plan or sheer plan or working drawing have to be submitted to the classification bureau for approval.

The general plan roughly depicts the division and arrangement of the ship. The following views are displayed:. Next to these, some basic data are included in the drawing like: General arrangement plan of a multi-purpose vessel that carries mainly paper, timber products and containers.

Me This cross-section shows one or more athwart cross-sections of the ship. In case of a freighter it is always a cross-section of the hold closest to the midship. Some of the data shows includes:. In order to get an idea about the composition of the different plates of:. This drawing It indicates. The safety plan is a general arrangement plan on which all the safety devices for example lifeboats, life rafts, escape routes, fire extinguishers are shown.

The docking plan is a simplified version of the general plan. It indicates where the ship should be supported by the keel blocks in case of docking. Furthermore the bottom and other tank plugs are shown with the type of liquid with which tanks may be filled. This is also a simplified version of the general plan.

All tanks and holds are indicated with their volumes and centre of gravity respectively. Together with the stability and 'light weight' particulars, this forms the basis from which stability calculations can be performed.

Normally this drawing goes together with the deadweight scale, which gives information about the relationship between draught and for example displacement in fresh and salt water. Ship owners have an interest III promoting their ships as much as possible, especially the types of cargo their ships can transport.

Or to put it in another way: The table on the next page contains data of a number of ships which differ very much in the type of cargo they can carry. The abbreviations and other information are explained, unless they have already been explained in the text. UQyd's Maehinery Class. All machinery has lDecn built in accordance with the spedficatiqnsotf this classification. Unmanned Machinery Space. The engineroom does not have to be manned permanently.

Litt Appliance.. The cargo gear has, been approved as classed. If all the tween decks are installed in the hold, the capacity of the hold decreases by ft3 or m-.

Minimum strength of the hatches also according to class as determined by the 12 loadline convention. The criteria are based on the maximum height of a. I Lloyd's number is also the IMO-registration number of the ship, even after a change of ownership, this. Most holds have three tween decks resulting in a hold which is divided into 4 compartments.

G gives the quality of the viscosity. Air draught at summer draught, if the loaded vessel is not at summer draught, additional ballast may be used. After lengthening Anthony Veder's gas carrier "Coral Actinia" with The period from l until the Second World War saw the rise of the regular service liners. This was the result of the transport of cargo and passengers between Europe and the colonies in the East and the West, and the increasing number of emigrants leaving for North America.

In general, the big and versatile trade vessels of this period were still in use even as late as the s. Transportation of passengers, general cargo, oil, refrigerated cargo, heavy boxed parcels, animals and bulk with one and the same ship was very. After some initial hesitation, the period after the Second World War showed a continuous increase in world trade and thus in sea trade. This increase in global commerce, only interrupted by short periods of relapse, lasts even to this day.

SHIP KNOWLEDGE: A MODERN ENCYCLOPEDIA

In the beginning this resulted in more and more ships, subsequently they became faster and bigger, A lot of smaller ships were then taken out of service. The modernization of shipbuilding and navigation led to the loss of many jobs in the sector. After the 's more and more universal ships were replaced by specialized vessels that can carry only one type of cargo. This process had already started on a much smaller scale since These new vessels are:. Passenger liners have been superseded almost entirely by aeroplanes, because of the large distances involved.

However, after J the number of passenger ships that specialize in luxury cruises have increased enormously. In this overview types of vessels are categorized. It is by no means a complete overview. Some vessels can be placed in more than one category. The discussion of the vessels below includes a general description, dimensions and other characteristics. For instance, important features for a container vessel are the maximum number of containers it can carry and the deadweight. For a passenger liner, the deadweight is not important, but the number of passengers is.

A tug boat has to possess a high ballard pull, whereas that is not important for a dredger. Multipurpose means that these vessels can transport many types of cargo. These ships use hatchcovers as bulkheads as well as tweendecks in the hold. These hatchcovers can be placed at varying heights and positions. Usually the head ledges and hatch coamings are of the same dimensions as the holds, which makes loading and discharging easier.

The holds are sealed with hatches using a variety of systems. Cargo like wood or containers can be carried on top of the hatches. Often the bulwark is heightened to support the containers. A multipurpose vessel can also be equipped with one or more ramps on the side of the ship.

Loading and discharging can then commence through these ramps by forklifts. This is faster and less dependent on the weather. Multipurpose ships with cargo gear are heavier than comparable vessels without cargo gear. As a result their carrying capacity is less. Some vessels can not pass under a bridge because of the height of the cranes. The advantage of such a ship is that she can work in ports and industrial zones where no cranes are available.

Ships without cargo gear are dependent on the presence of loading gear in the ports and are therefore limited in their employability.

In order to navigate from the sea into the inland waterways, coastal trade liners have a small draught; usually not more then 3. Like inland vessels, coastal trade liners also called sea-river ships often have a hydraulically. When the ship has to pass under a bridge, the wheelhouse can be lowered. Masts must also be able to be Jowered.

Since the J s the transport of containers has continued to grow. The specific advantage of the use of containers is that the cargo can be transported directly from customer to customer, and not just from port to port. The transport by water is just a link in the chain of transport. T11e' sizes of containers vary. Intercontinental container ships Container vessels are divided into generations see the table below.

The big container ships can only go to the largest ports because of the ship's size and the transfer capacity of the port. Large container vessels usually do not have their own loading gear. After ships without hatches were built, also called cellular vessels. Because there are no hatches it means that water can pour into the holds tropical rains, seawater.

Therefore special provisions have to be made for the bilge pumping systems. Analogous to big tankers and bulk carriers, container vessels can also be classified on the basis of the passage that is just suitable. These ships are too large to pass through the Panama Canal. Since container vessels with widths exceeding Container feeders are small or medium-sized ships starting at TEU that specialize in transporting cargo from small ports to large ports and vice versa, or for use in services which are not profitable for the larger container vessels.

The feeders may be equipped with cargo gear. Often, multi purpose ships are employed as container feeders. L", 20' services, USA, or 4Q'. Their construction and stability allows them to carry extremely large and heavy objects. The conventional vessels are often fitted with loading gear, which does not necessarily mean that the vessels are able to lift heavy objects, but when there is no heavy cargo, the vessels can function as multipurpose vessels.

Modern refrigerated ships are carrying cargo more and more in containers instead of on trays. Refrigerated containers have a built in refrigerating system, which can be plugged in to the ship's electricity grid. Air is used to get rid of the excess heat and therefore the ventilation of the containers is very important. Refrigerated containers can also be transported by a regular container vessel. When fruit is carried, not just the temperature is being controlled, but also the composition of the air in the containers in order to control the ripening process of the fruit.

An increasing number of reefers are taking on general cargo as return. Gas tankers are ships that are used to carry liquefied gas.

In general, there are two kinds of liquefied gases:. LNG is a mixture of methane and ethane. Other similar liquefied gases can also be transported by these gas tankers. LPG and similar compounds can be kept liquid at moderate pressures and temperatures, but often higher pressures and lower temperatures are needed to keep the gases in their liquid state.

The tanks have to be well insulated because of the following two reasons:. If, as a result of this, the fluid level drops and the free liquid surface increases, this can lead to sloshing of the liquid against the inside of the tank, which will damage the tank wall. Therefore it is very important that the liquid does not come into contact with the steel. This is exactly the reason why the tank walls are not strong enough to resist strong sloshing of the liquid.

Gas tankers are often steam turbine ships, the boil-off of the cargo can be used as fuel for the boilers. Crude oil tankers are used to carry the crude oil from a loading POIt near an oil field or from the end of a pipeline to a refinery.

In general, these vessels are very large. The carrying capacity of these crude oil tankers has risen to as much as In contrast to product tankers, crude oil tankers have a limited number of tanks, usually approximately 15 tanks plus two slop tanks. The large crude oil tankers are subdivided into the following classes: The large draught of the larger tankers restricts the sailing routes and limits the number of ports that can be called for loading or discharge of cargo.

The oil is pumped on board by shore pumps. From the transverse lines, the oil goes to droplines, vertically down into the ship, to the. Three or four longitudinal pipelines with branches to each tank. At the end of each branch a valve is installed. The bottom lines are in aft direction connected to the pumps in the pump room, a vertical space between the cargo tanks and the engine room. To discharge cargo, the ship's pumps in the pump room draw the oil from the cargo tanks, and press it upwards to the decklines, from aft to the manifold midships.

Via a hose the oil is pumped ashore to the receiving facility where the cargo ends up in a shore tank. Needless to say that numerous valves isolate pumps, tanks, and the separate pipelines from each other. Loading and discharging takes some 24 to 36 hours per operation. Apart from the cargo pipeline system there are various other cargo related pipeline systems on deck and in the tanks:.

Inert gas is also used to slow down corrosion of ballast tanks when they are not treated with paint. This still occurs on some older tankers. During the loading inert gas is discharged into the atmosphere. Usually crude is not heated during the voyage. When a large ship like a crude-oil tanker is damaged by collision or grounding, vast amounts of oil can leak into the ocean.

Therefore, regulations now require that such vessels have a double hull. Product tankers have a large number of tanks with a total carrying capacity of approximately 50, tons. The piping systems on a product tanker are different from the systems in crude oil tankers. Normally every tank has its own filling and discharge line to the manifold and its own cargo pump. There are very strict requirements and regulations for chemical tankers because of the toxicity and flammability of the typical chemical cargo.

All cargo tanks are separated from:. This ensures that in case of leakage from one of the tanks, the crew and environment are not subjected to danger.

To prevent mixing of incompatible cargoes, a cofferdam separates tanks with different contents. A cofferdam is a small empty space fitted with a sounding apparatus, a bilge connection and ventilation. The size of chemical tankers varies between and 23, GT. The number of tanks in transverse direction varies between 3 for tankers up to tons and 6 for larger tankers.

Bulk carriers are ships especially designed to carry loose cargo in bulk. There are three types of bulk carriers:.

Bulk carriers are usually discharged by grabs or by suction pipes. Pouring the cargo through a shooter or via a conveyor belt does the loading. Bulk carriers have large upper and lower ballast tanks to give the empty vessel enough draught and a better behaviour whilst in transit. Ships transporting ore have a special design. To prevent a too large stability the holds must not be situated too low or too close to the sides of the ship.

Some bulkcarriers can also function as a tanker. This combination carrier is called an are Bulk Oil aBO carrier. To facilitate the transport of mobile cargo, Ro-Ro vessels have continuous decks, spanning the entire length of the ship. As a result of this the vessel loses its stability rapidly if water enters the decks after a collision or a burst side door.

In connection with this, the safety regulations for these vessels have been sharpened in the last few years by the requirement of division doors. The tweendecks of these ships are often adjustable in height. Loading and discharging proceeds via the.

Ship Knowledge a Modern Encyclopedia

Because the ramps may not be deformed too much, RoRos are equipped with an antiheeling system which automatically distributes water between two opposing ballast tanks. To prevent the cargo from moving in bad weather, the vehicles are fastened using a lashing system. During loading and discharging additional ventilation is required to get rid of the exhaust fumes. The vessels usually shuttle between two ports on a very tight schedule.

The passengers drive their own cars on board via a ramp, which is either part of the ship, placed on the quay, or a combination of these two. Ferries have the same type of decks as the Ro-Ro carriers, and therefore they face the same problems when water floods the decks. Except in some archipelagos areas, as the Philippines and Indonesia, the traditional passenger liners have disappeared.

International and intercontinental transport of passengers is now almost completely done by aircraft. The modern cruise ships are used for making luxurious holiday trips to distant countries and ports.

On board there is a whole range of facilities for relaxation like swimming pools, cinemas, bars, casinos, theatres etc. Without exception, these vessels are equipped with very good air conditioners. Even modern cruise ships with sails have no noticeable list when sailing. The number of persons on board can be as high as ; the crew is half or two third that number. Cattle ships transport livestock such as sheep from Australia to the Far East, and cows from Northwest Europe to the Mediterranean.

The holds are set up as stables. The silos with fodder are located at the main or lower deck. Sheep are often fed automatically, while cows are fed semi-automatically: A proper air conditioning is required: To achieve a low stability cattle ships are very slender ships. This prevents the animals from breaking their legs when the ship experiences rolling.

The slender shape of the fore ship also prevents too much pitching. Yachts can be distinguished as motor yachts and sailing yachts with an auxiliary motor. These vessels are purchased by and used for:. The building of large luxurious motor and sailing yachts is very similar to the building of commercial ships, but with more emphasis on the finish and appearance.

Trawlers are fishing vessels which drag their nets through the water. In pelagic fishery, the nets are suspended between the water surface and the seabed.

In bottom fishery, the net is dragged over the seabed, which. The construction and equipment of these fishing vessels strongly depend on the fishing method and the species of fish aimed at. The most important types of trawlers are the cutter and the stern trawler. F,lIillg Speed H'! The length or tlu: Non-trawling vessels can range from a simple craft deploying a net to fishing vessels which can layout nets which are several kilometres in length, waiting for the fish to swim into the net.

Typical examples are: A common characteristic of all tugboats is their low aft deck. This guarantees that the towing line has some freedom of movement. The point of application of the force in the towing line must be located close to the midships in such a way that the force has no influence on the manoeuvrability. The towing winch is of great importance because it has to be able to transfer the total force of the propeller to the towing line.

Partly completed ships, floating wrecks, docks, drilling rigs and other large tloating objects that have to be relocated can be towed by tugboats. Ever since the introduction of semisubmersible heavy lift carriers, long distance towing is used less often as a method of transport. Coastal states often use seagoing tugs to avert an imminent environmental disaster. Escort tugs are used to escort large ships along dangerous passages.

They have been developed after a number of serious tanker accidents in recent years. Escort tugs operate in confined coastal waters and are small sturdy seagoing tugs that can push or pull a large ship away from a danger zone when the own propulsion is not sufficient. Escott tugs need to be. Their main function is to cut a channel through an ice-sheet at sea, in a port, a river or other inland waterways. Obviously these ships have to he able to resist floating ice.

The fore snip is especially reinforced and the material used must have a very high impact value. The shell must be free of protrusions because floating ice wiJI rip these off immediately.

There is hardly a paint strong enough to resist the forces involved in icebreaking, For the same reason the. Some icebreakers have nuclear propulsion. These vessels are usually equipped with two adjustable suction pipes, which drag over the bottom to dredge. Dredging pumps in the holds or in the suction pipes pump a mixture of water and material from the sea floor into the holds.

Till now they are able to dredge to a depth of m. The holds are called hoppers. The solid material precipitates in the hopper; the excess water flows overboard. In oreler to dredge in adverse weather, the suction pipes are suspended from special cranes, which operate with heave compensation. This ensures that the suction nozzles stay in contact with the seabed. When the vessel is at its plimsoll mark, it will navigate to the discharging site. The discharging can be done with pressure, using the dredging pumps and the pressure lines at the bow.

When the vessel navigates towards the direct vicinity of the dumping location, the discharging can also be done using the spray nozzle, located on the fore end. This is called rainbowing. In both cases the solid precipitate is mixed with water so that pumps can be used.

When the ship reaches the exact dumping location, the cargo is discharged through the bottom flaps. The load is then dumped instantaneously.

To facilitate this way of discharging, some small hopper suction dredgers are constructed as. These vessels are called split rail suction dredgers.

For tougher types of soils, the kind that cannot be simply sucked up, cutter suction dredgers are used. These vessels rake the seabed with a rotating cutter and are often used in the development of new ports and new waterways. Cutter suction dredgers can be equipped with their own means of propulsion, but this is not always the case. Spud poles are used to temporarily fix the vessels.

The dredgers then move in a swinging motion to deepen the bottom. The loosened soils are washed away through a dredging pump and a floating discharge pipeline to the soil destination. The soil can also be pumped into a barge that can. Cutter suction dredgers are never equipped with a hopper.

Cable laying ships are vessels, which can lay one or more cables on the sea floor. If the distance exceeds the length of one cable, multiple cables have to be joined together on board of the ship, These vessels are fully equipped for this task, The ships also have the ability to repair broken cables. Crucial in the cable laying process is that the positions of the cables on the sea floor correspond to their positions on the map, Furthermore, during the joining of the cables, the vessel must be able to keep its position, For these reasons, cable ships are always equipped with multiple adjustable, and often also azimuthing, propellers 10 com-.

Aircraft carriers are medium-size to large vessels suitable for aircraft and helicopters to land on and take off from. They use a sort of skijump for greater lift during take-off and do not have the auxiliaries that CTOLs have.

Frigates are often equipped with a helicopter landing platform. The ships have a length of about metres and a crew of The vessels are lightweight, highly manoeuvrable ships with a large propulsion power gas turbines divided over two engine rooms. At a speed of 30 knots they can come to a complete stop within 1.

Cruisers mostly have a displacement of more than 10, tons and are sufficiently armed to operate on their own.

Tasks are surveillance,. A destroyer is smaller than a cruiser but IS also fitted to operate independently. These are multifunctional warships designed to fight submarines and surface vessels and to escort convoys.

Frigates are very versatile warships. They are suitable for air defence, anti-submarine warfare and surface warfare. They have a wide array of sensors, communication devices and large numbers of sonars.

There are several different weapon systems on board which are controlled from the command room and can follow and. Corvettes have a displacement of to tons and are well armed. They are best equipped to act in regional operations and are seldom used for long-range operations. These vessels are part of the strategic nuclear deterrence force of the superpowers. They can stay below the surface for months if necessary. Small to medium submarines armed with torpedoes and USMs.

The propulsion is provided by propellers getting their power from large batteries accumulators. FACs have a displacement of less than tons, a speed of 25 knots or more and are designed for fast hit-and run tactics within a range of miles from the coast. Ships with a displacement of approx. Usually an OPY is lightly armed and equipped with a helicopter deck which enhances their patrolling capabilities.

These vessels are equipped with several types of mine detecting sonars. This type of vessel is capable of towing means to sweep anchored as well as bottom mines with acoustic, magnetic or pressure ignition. Vessels designed to deliver an amphibious force to a coastal operation area. Embarked landing craft or helicopters will be used for disembarkation of the force. There are many types of Amphibious ships. Landing craft are smaller than amphibious craft, designed to sail towards a beach and allow vehicles, troops and equipment to leave the ship via a ramp at the bow of the ship.

They can not operate in rough conditions and are usually transported to the area of operation in an amphibious ship. A ship designed to gather information on other ships and coastal installations in other countries. This ship can carry water, stores, fuel and ammunition and can supply these goods at sea. A vessel used to survey the bottom of the sea to make charts for navigation. This vessel gathers information about the physical and biological qualities of the sea.

Comparable to a seagoing tug, with the equipment for fire fighting. As our world continues to expand in population and the use of energy consuming applications is ever growing and growing, this makes us more than ever dependent on "energy". As a consequence, nowadays oil and gas are still our most important source of energy.

Within the world of oil and gas, Crude oil is called "Petroleum". Crude oil actually comes from rocks the oil is entrapped within rock formations and the different layers of rocks. Most of the oil and gas is found within the socalled Sandstone and Limestone layers. According to scientists, oil and gas come from the remains of plants and minuscule animals that lived and died in the sea, millions of years ago.

As time passed, large amounts of sediment covered the organic material. The increasing weight of these overlaying sediments resulted in tremendous pressure and heat on the organic material buried below and transformed this organic material during millions of years into oil and gas. Parallel to this process the surrounding organic material transformed into sedimentary rock e. In the early years of whale oil was used for illumination and lubricating purposes.

Around the year this oil became very scarce and expensive as whales in the USA waters had nearly been hunted to extinction. As a consequence people were anxious to find alternatives.

Around these times an oil well near Titusville, Pennsylvania was found where oil spontaneously came to the surface of the land. It literally leaked out of the rocks which inspired a man named Colonel Drake to recover this "rock oil" and sell it as an inexpensive substitute for whale oil.

Proper recovery of the oil by simply collecting from trenches did not work out well. This finally - after some years of trial and error - resulted in in the early technique of drilling to collect the oil from its point of origin, initially at a depth of 21 metres. In , this was followed by extensive successful drilling on the beach and extended to approximately 90 metres in the ocean on the coastline of South Carolina, the first steps to offshore activities!

Exactly 50 years later on the 4th of November the first real offshore oil was found out of sight of land in the Gulf of Mexico, 9 searniles offshore in a water depth of as little as 6 metres.

From then on over the last 50 years progress has been revolutionary. Offshore oil and gas developments are now taking place in over 40 countries, hundreds of kilometres from the shore ever-increasing waterdepths. The word "Offshore" in the Oil and Gas Industry refers to industrial activities in open sea, starting from the search exploration of oil and gas to production exploitation and transporting them to the shore.

The Offshore is part of an industry that actually designs, builds and operates the offshore structures to allow the execution of offshore activities. Jack-up drilling rigs, see note 1 2. Drilling vessels ship shape see note 1 3. Semi-submersible drilling units c building the production facilities construction and installation of the 1. Offshore barges 3. Heavy lift carrier d developing the field driling and completing the 1. Jack-up drilling rigs production wells and 2. Semi-submersible drilling units interconnecting the production 3.

Pipelaying barges or pipelaying wells with the production facility vessels e getting the hydrocarbons to the - production 1. Fixed platforms surface and processing at the - depressurization and separation 2. Tension leg platforms surface in oil, gas and water fractions 3. Production jack-ups or semi-subs 6. Subsea installations 7. Others, see note 2 f bringing 'the product' to the shore transportation 1. Shuttle tankers 2. Pipelines, laid at the seabed by pipe laying vessels, see note 3 g Support - Supply and services 1.

Suppliers, crewboats, anchor - Maintenance and repair handlers - Watch keeping 2. Diving and Multipurpose support vessels 3. Standby and chase vessels Notes:. Due to the limited length of the legs of the jack-up drilling rigs, these rigs are limited in their drilling operations to a maximum of to metres water depth; however in general preferred for use by clients because of their stable work platform.

Within and above the operational limitations of the jackups the semi-submersible drilling rigs may be used. Depending on the distance to the shore base and the expected sea state conditions, the ship shaped drilling vessel is a good alternative. The technique of laying pipes on the seabed in extended water depth has drastically improved and as a consequence more and more really "high-tech" pipe-laying units emerge and are successfully operating. To allow the installation of pipelines in open sea the following pipelaying vessels are applied:.

All technical aspects as for ordinary ships in the designing and engineering process are applicable such as strength, stability, hydrodynamical behaviour, freeboard, safety etc. Certification aspects. Based on the applicable specific tasks, Classification Societies and National Authorities have imposed additional Rules, Regulations and Requirements as a basis for certification and safe working conditions.

See also chapter 6. The purpose of a Seismic Survey vessel is to produce detailed information for oil companies as a basis for actual production drilling.

This information is the result of the evaluated reflected sound waves in the sea floor. To obtain these results sound waves are initiated by the vessel by means of air guns, the reflections are collected by a number of detectors within long cables so called streamers towed by the vessel. The Jack-up drilling rig often shortened to "Jack-up" or "Drilling rig" is used for exploration drilling in approx.

The Jack-up barge is a triangulary or a rectangularly shaped barge that is towed to the work location. At the location the barge raises its deck alongside the legs with the lower ends of the legs resting on the seabed. Jack-up barges are mainly used for exploration drilling usually 3 legged and as a work barge for construction work typically 4-legged. Long distance transport of Jack-ups is by towing with a tug wet tow or by heavy lift transport ship.

See photo section 3. A ship-shaped drilling ship is used for drilling exploration and production wells in medium to deep water from I SO to metres water depth. A modern drill ship can obtain an average speed of 14 knots in transit with a high drilling equipment storage capacity. The vessel is ideal for drilling consecutive wells in different parts of the world.

Drilling derrick 2. Deck 3. Columns 4. Blisters 5. Cross brace 6. Diagonal brace 7. Anchor racks 8. Anchor winches on corner edges 9. Lifeboat station Boat Deck cranes Floater Sponson addional buoyancy.

IDlIi subtnersiblr at operational draugh:. A semi-submersible drilling unit is used for drilling the exploration and production wells in - 2, m water depth. Anchored units can operate in max. Dynamically positioned vessels can operate independent of water depth up to around the year drilling was performed in max.

An important advantage of the semisubmersible type in comparison with the ship-shaped type drilling vessel is the better motion behaviour of the unit in harsh environments which can give an extended working window. A dynamically positioned D. A control system continuously determines the required thrust vector based on information from a position reference system, Iike radio or hydro-acoustic beacons or D GPS.

These are semi-submersible barges or vessels, equipped with one or two heavy-duty offshore cranes. The maximum hoisting capacity is today 7, tonnes per crane. The vessels are used for transportation and installation of large modules weighing up to 12, tonnes of fixed offshore platforms. The base of the platform called jacket is either launched from a barge or lifted onto the sea-bed by the crane vessel prior to installation of the topside modules. After installation of the jacket it is firmly connected to the seabed by steel piles, that are driven down by large hydraulic hammers suspended from the offshore cranes.

Some crane vessels also have pipelaying facilities. The weight of each module is l: The Tension Leg Platform is used for drilling and production purposes. The unit resembles a semi submersible drilling unit and is attached to the sea floor with tensioned steel cables. The buoyancy of the platform applies tension to the cables.

The advantage of the TLP is the economical aspect in comparison with the fixed platforms, specifically for deeper water. In case the production in a particular field goes down, this platform can be reused in other locations.

Fixed Production Platforms are prefabricated onshore, transported on barges to their final production locations at sea and subsequently they are installed and completed to facilitate the actual oil I gas production.

The platform can be subdivided into the following main components:. Most platforms stand in water depths varying from approx. The highest jacket ever built was for a water depth of m. ILl-' O!! Walf'l' dcplh J In the absence of a pipeline from the production facility to the shore terminal a shuttle tanker is needed to take over the oil cargo from the FPSO or FSO on location for transportation to the shore terminal. Many of these pipelaying barges have a heavyduty crane for installation work.

Pipes are supplied to the pipelaying vessel by pipe-supply carriers. Cranes on the pipelaying vessel unload the carrier and hoist the joints into temporary pipe-storage racks. On the main deck a complete pipe joining and coating factory is provided. After welding the pipe joints, non-destructive testing NOT is executed prior to transporting the joined pipes horizontally over the firing line to the pipe stinger used in shallow and deep water, max J Ill.

The stinger extends out-board over the stern of the pipelaying barge. This process is controlled by means of pipe tensioners varying in capacity from 40 - tons.

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For deep water over m water depth installation of subsea pipelines a J-Iay tower is used. The shape of the pipe when lowered onto the seabed resembles a hockey stick hence the designation J-Iay. During supply operations often DP is used to stay on position Goy-stick controlled. Other functions besides supply are fire fighting and towing of floating units.

Suppliers are characterised by a superstructure and deckhouse at the foreship and a long f1at aft deck. They have no heli-deck and no cranes.

The offshore platform or vessel uses its own cranes to lift cargo from the PSV deck. An anchor handling tug is used to set and retrieve anchors of moored offshore units and for towing these units. The AHT often looks similar to a PSV, but has a shorter aft deck and an open stern with a stern roll to be able to pull anchors on the deck. To facilitate the diving operations DSVs have diving belles and decompression chambers for the divers.

A moonpool is used to lower divers or subsea tools. Such a subsea tool is the Remotely Operated Vehicle ROV , a selfpropelled underwater robot for inspection or construction and repair work. Usually the ROV is connected by an umbilical to the support vessel. DSVs are anchor moored or dynamically positioned. When working with divers, very strict requirements to the anchor mooring or DP system apply, as a drift-off of the DSV could bring the divers in danger.

Without diving operations, the DP requirements are less stringent. MSV s can be used for a large variety of tasks like:.

The vessel can be ship-. Chase vessels are used to chase ships away from platforms, offshore operations or seismic survey vessels and for supply operations. Of course these tasks can be combined in one ship.

Often converted fishing vessels are used for this. Prior to the actual construction of the ship, the shipping company, financer and future owners have already completed a trajectory of negotiations and considerations.

Unlike a car, a cargo ship is not ready for delivery in a wide range of models, but it has to be constructed following the demands of the shipping company. However, it is becoming increasingly popular to classify ships into categories where their designs are then standardised.

This makes mass-production possible,. In spite of the disadvantages, shipyards have introduced good and versatile standardised ships in recent years, Some shipping companies are now ordering whole series of these with sometimes only a few modifications to the design.

The shipping company first makes up an application for specification, This is a list of demands which the ship has to fulfil. It specifies:. Container cargoes in hold and on upperded , strengthened for regular discharge by grabs. The following maritime Rules and Regulations, those coming into effect as of the date of execution of the oontract to be complied with, including rules and regulations known at the day of execution of the contract, coming into force and being applicable to the vessel before actual delivery:.

International convention for the saf8ty of life at sea, and latest amendments International convention on load lines, The shipping company then submits this list of demands to several shipyards.

The shipyards will then let the shipping companies know if they are interested in the assignment. This will depend on:. After the exploratory talks the shipping company sets a time period in which the shipyards can submit an offer without engagement.

This means that the shipping company does not have to pay for the offer and that the shipyards do not know which one will get the assignment. Sometimes the shipping company already has a preference for a particular shipyard, and then the offers are used to compare the different prices.

The offer without engagement is the response of the shipyard to the application for specification. The outline specification is a brief technical description and the general arrangement plan is a side view of the ship, which depicts the arrangement of all spaces in the vessel.

A list of deviations often accompanies the outline specification. This shows how the preliminary sketch differs from the application for specification and gives the reasons for the deviations. On the basis of the offers, a shipping company will continue negotiations with 2 or 3 shipyards.

A preliminary sketch is made in the project department of the shipyard. This requires a lot of calculations, especially if the design is entirely new.

The demands on computer programming and personnel are quite heavy and if the shipyard is too small to carry out such an amount of calculating work they will co-operate with other shipyards, or subcontract the work. A computer-programme is used in the following first in the preliminary sketch and later on in the final design:. These calculations also give the stability and the longitudinal strength. The ship's behaviour at sea and its manoeuvrability at different conditions of loading.

F Forecaste! B deckfrarnes, postition bullkheads, pos. Niestern Sander bv. After having studied all the offers, the shipping company will make a definitive choice for a particular design.

This leads to a preliminary estimate of construction or preliminary building plan, a document that may be as large as pages. The preliminary building plan is then sent to two or three shipyards for an offer. This procedure is called a tender, and participating in it is called "to tender". Sometimes the EU demands an "open tender" in which other shipyards, if they are from the EU, can partake. It can sometimes take months for the shipyards to calculate an accurate price from the tender, but they still do not receive any money; there are still no obligations.

Finally the order will be granted to one of the shipyards. In this choice, not just the price is taken into consideration, but also other factors like the reputation of the shipyard working within budget and time and if the shipyard has constructed a vessel for the shipping company before. After this preparation, often lasting a year, the parties involved sign the final building contract. The building contract establishes all the legal positions and commercial conditions between the shipyard, the shipping company and often also the financier.

Now that the building contract has been signed, all the parties have obligations that start with the down payment and end with the delivery on completion and the final payment. Within the contract there will be a provision to allow for adjustment of the price should any changes be made to the original design at some stage during the building contract.

For any alterations or components of which the price is unknown the price will be estimated and included with any other estimates. The payment will be settled at a later date in accordance with the provisions made within the contract. Part of the building contract is the estimate of construction, which. The shipyard assigns a yard number to the future ship, which is stated on all the drawings and documentation.

At this point the clock starts to tick for the time of construction. The building time, as agreed in the contract, comprises the design phase and the building phase. The building time varies between 6 and 24 months. A building group is formed by the shipping company and the shipyard who both appoint people, who are , each person in his or her own field of expertise, responsible for the entire building process until the delivery.

The design department is often called the drawing office, even though nowadays there is not a single drawing table to be found.

The ship is worked out in detail in construction drawings or sheer plan or working plan and fr plans. The schemes of all the mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, and electrical systems are detailed and the accommodation is drawn in. Certain essential drawings have to be submitted to the classification society where the ship is to be registered. And even though people from the shipping company are in the building group, some drawings still need approval from the management of the shipping company.

Furthermore, the whole of the design has to live up to legal demands of the classification bureau, who regularly send their inspectors to the shipyard to assure compliance with initially approved drawings.

There are shipyards that have a small design department. They will contract the design out to an independent marine engineering office, or they will co-operate with other shipyards. The working out of all the details to a complete and approved set of drawings takes tens of thousands or even hundreds of thousands of hours.

This is costly; as a rule of thumb up to. In many countries there exists a good co-operation between the various shipyards, and standardisation has led. This makes it increasingly easy for shipyards to build parts for each other. For certain difficult areas of design, specialist research and engineering firms are approached. These firms will produce work for:. This is the world famous Ship Knowledge Encyclopedia by Dokmar. In preparing this book any shortcomings of the former publication were remedied and many fresh and relevant subjects were added.

A new layout was also decided upon. In a very detailed and clear way the various subjects pertaining to modern shipbuilding, ship repair, seamanship, modern shipping modes and the offshore industry are dealt with herein. An attempt was made to provide the comprehensive overview of ships, systems, pertinent auxiliaries, rules and regulations.

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