Biographies of the. Rightly-Guided Caliphs. سيرة الخلفاء الراشدين. ابن کثیر الطبري - السيوطي. Prepared from the works of Ibn Katheer, At-. Tabari,. As-Syooti . Assalamu Alaikum Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Baraktuhu ===== For More Islamic Books Visit ===== [email protected]_islamic_media. By Ibn Katheer, At-Tabari, As-Syooti and Other Historians Language: English | Format: PDF | Pages: | Size: 23 MB Biographies Of The.
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Biographies of the. Rightly-Guided Caliphs. سيرة الخلفاء الراشدين. ابن کثیر الطبري - السيوطي. Prepared from the works of Ibn Katheer, At. Tabari,. As-Syooti . Ibn Katheer, At-Tabari, As-Syooti and Other Historians. The four Rightly guided Caliphs (Khaliph’s) Abu Bakr As-Sideeq, Umar ibn Al-Khattaab, Uthmaan Ibn ’Affaan and Ali Ibn Abi Taalib. The Biography of Umar Ibn Abdel-Azeez who is regarded as one of the Rightly Guided Chaliphs. Language: English | Format: PDF | Pages: | Size: 23 MB. Biographies Of The Rightly-Guided Caliphs [Sirat-Ul Khulafa]. The four Rightly.
He died two days later and was buried in Al-Najaf. Abstract of a lecture concerning the authenticity of the Zuhayr-Inscription. Kanishka Publishers, Distributors. However, the Muslims sent for reinforcements, and the invading army, joined by another 12, men in , defeated a Byzantine army at the Battle of Heliopolis. Thereafter, there rose another cry for revenge for the blood of Uthman, this time by Mu'awiya , kinsman of Uthman and governor of the province of Syria. Others merely withheld zakat , the alms tax, without formally challenging Islam.
Our editors will review what you've submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we'll add it to the article. Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed. Written By: Asma Afsaruddin Seyyed Hossein Nasr. See Article History. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: The desire for such…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Day , every day in your inbox!
In these papers, our purpose is to handle with the historical perspective and examine the evidences in the time of the first four caliphs which are also called Rashidun caliphs. Abstract of a lecture concerning the authenticity of the Zuhayr-Inscription.
Slavery was still in effect mercilessly when Islam was born. Slaves were people living miserable lives who hoped to find salvation from the boundaries of others, and society treated them as commercial property for sale.
Islam made Islam made significant reforms in slavery. Key Words: Slaves were those that people in society had demoted as property, and they were treated differently from other individuals in terms of the laws, economy and social life.
Slavery, which dates back long ago, was widespread all around the Non-Muslims may serve in the majlis, though they may not vote or serve as an official. Sunni Islamic lawyers have commented on when it is permissible to disobey, impeach or remove rulers in the Caliphate. This is usually when the rulers are not meeting public responsibilities obliged upon them under Islam. Al-Mawardi said that if the rulers meet their Islamic responsibilities to the public, the people must obey their laws, but if they become either unjust or severely ineffective then the Caliph or ruler must be impeached via the Majlis al-Shura.
Al-Juwayni argued that Islam is the goal of the ummah, so any ruler that deviates from this goal must be impeached. Al-Ghazali believed that oppression by a caliph is enough for impeachment. Rather than just relying on impeachment, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani obliged rebellion upon the people if the caliph began to act with no regard for Islamic law.
Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani said that to ignore such a situation is haraam , and those who cannot revolt inside the caliphate should launch a struggle from outside. Al-Asqalani used two ayahs from the Qur'an to justify this:. And they the sinners on qiyama will say, "Our Lord! We obeyed our leaders and our chiefs, and they misled us from the right path. Our Lord! Give them the leaders double the punishment you give us and curse them with a very great curse" Islamic lawyers have commented that when the rulers refuse to step down via successful impeachment through the Majlis, becoming dictators through the support of a corrupt army, the majority, upon agreement, has the option to launch a revolution against them.
Many noted that this option is only exercised after factoring in the potential cost of life. The following hadith establishes the principle of rule of law in relation to nepotism and accountability: The people of Quraish worried about the lady from Bani Makhzum who had committed theft. They asked, "Who will intercede for her with Allah's Apostle? By Allah, if Fatima , the daughter of Muhammad my daughter stole, I would cut off her hand. Various Islamic lawyers do, however, place multiple conditions, and stipulations--e.
It is well known that, during a time of drought during the Rashidun caliphate, capital punishments were suspended until the effects of the drought passed. Islamic jurists later formulated the concept of the rule of law, the equal subjection of all classes to the ordinary law of the land.
A Qadi Islamic judge was also not allowed to discriminate on the grounds of religion, gender, colour , kinship or prejudice. There were also a number of cases where caliphs had to appear before judges as they prepared to deliver their verdict. According to Noah Feldman, a law professor at Harvard University , the legal scholars and jurists who once upheld the rule of law were replaced by a law governed by the state due to the codification of Sharia by the Ottoman Empire in the early 19th century.
During the Rashidun Caliphate there was a great improvement in the lives of the ordinary people due to the revolutionary economic policies developed by Umar and his successor Uthman Umar introduced these reforms, and Uthman, who was an intelligent businessman himself, further developed them. Bait-ul-Maal lit. In the time of Muhammad there was no permanent Bait-ul-Mal or public treasury. Whatever revenues or other amounts were received were distributed immediately.
There were no salaries to be paid, and there was no state expenditure, thereby making a public treasury unnecessary. Abu Bakr established a house where all money was kept on receipt. As all money was distributed immediately, the treasury generally remained locked up; at the time Abu Bakr's death, there was only one dirham in the public treasury.
In the time of Umar things changed. With each conquest, revenue increased. Umar also granted salaries to the army. Abu Huraira , the Governor of Bahrain , sent his revenue to Umar, amounting to five hundred thousand dirhams. Umar summoned a meeting of his Consultative Assembly and sought the opinion of the Companions about the disposal of the money.
Uthman ibn Affan advised that the amount should be kept for future needs. Walid bin Hisham suggested that, like the Byzantines, separate departments of treasury and accounts should be set up.
After consulting the Companions, Umar decided to establish the central Treasury at Medina. Abdullah bin Arqam was appointed as the Treasury Officer. He was assisted by Abdur Rahman bin Awf and Muiqib. A separate Accounts Department was also set up to maintain spending records. Later treasuries were set up in the provinces.
After meeting the local expenditure the provincial treasuries were required to remit the surplus revenue to the central treasury at Medina. According to Yaqubi the salaries and stipends charged to the central treasury amounted to over 30 million dirhams. A separate building was constructed for the royal treasury, the bait ul maal , which, in large cities, was protected by as many as guards.
Most historical accounts state that, among the Rashidun caliphs, Uthman was the first to strike coins; some accounts, however, state that Umar was the first to do so. When Persia was conquered, three types of coins were current there: Umar or Uthman, according to some accounts first struck an Islamic dirham of six dang. According to the Islamic jurist Al-Ghazali Algazel, — , the government was also expected to stockpile food supplies in every region in case a disaster or famine occurred.
The Caliphate was thus one of the earliest welfare states. It was taken from the Muslims in the amount of 2. All and only those persons whose annual wealth exceeded a minimum level nisab were collected from.
The nisab did not include one's primary residence, primary transportation, a moderate amount of woven jewelry, etc. Slaves, women, children, monks, the old, the sick,  hermits and the poor were all exempt. Fay was the income from State land, whether an agricultural land or a meadow, or a land with any natural mineral reserves.
Ghanimah or Khums represented war booty, four-fifths of which was distributed among serving soldiers, while one-fifth was allotted to the state.
Initially, after the first Muslim conquests in the 7th century, kharaj usually denoted a lump-sum duty levied upon the conquered provinces and collected by the officials of the former Byzantine and Sasanian empires, or, more broadly, any kind of tax levied by Muslim conquerors on their non-Muslim subjects, dhimmis. At that time, kharaj was synonymous with jizyah , which later emerged as a poll tax paid by dhimmis. Muslim landowners, on the other hand, paid only ushr , a religious tithe , which carried a much lower rate of taxation.
Umar was the first Muslim ruler to levy ushr. Umar issued instructions that ushr should be levied in such a way so as to avoid hardship, so as not to affect trade within the Caliphate.
The tax was levied only on merchandise meant for sale; goods imported for consumption or personal use but not for sale were not taxed. Merchandise valued at dirhams or less was not taxed. Imports by citizens for trade purposes were subject to the customs duty or import tax at lower rates. The problem before Umar was what to do with this money.
Someone suggested that the money should be kept in the treasury as a reserve for public expenditures. However, this view was not acceptable to the general body of the Muslims. Accordingly, a consensus was reached to distribute whatever was received during a year to the citizens. The next question was what system should be adopted for distribution. One suggestion was to distribute it equally on an ad hoc basis. Others objected that, as the spoils were considerable, the proposal would make the people very rich.
It was therefore agreed that, instead of ad hoc division, the amount of the allowance to the stipend should be determined beforehand and this allowance should be paid regardless of the amount of the spoils. On the amount of the allowance there were two opinions. Some held that it should be the same for all Muslims. Umar, on the other hand, believed that the allowance should be graduated according to one's merit with reference to Islam. Then the question arose as to what basis should be used for placing some above others.
Some suggested that the Caliph should first get the highest allowance, with the remaining allowances graduating downward from that. Umar rejected the proposal and decided to start with the clan of Muhammad. Umar set up a committee to compile a list of persons by nearness to Muhammad. The committee produced the list clan-wise. Bani Hashim appeared as the first clan, then the clan of Abu Bakr, and then the clan of Umar.
Umar accepted the first two placements but relegated his clan lower on the relationship scale. The main provisions of the final scale of allowance approved by Umar were: Under this scale, Umar's son Abdullah ibn Umar got an allowance of dirhams, while Usama ibn Zaid got The ordinary Muslim citizens got allowances of between and The regular annual allowance was given only to the urban population, because they formed the backbone of the state's economic resources.
The Bedouin living in the desert, cut off from the state's affairs, and making no contributions to development, were nevertheless often given stipends. The evaluation greatly contributed to the prosperity of the citizens as trade increased, and their contributions to the bait al maal increased accordingly.
The mosques were not merely places for offering prayers, but also community centers where the faithful gathered to discuss problems of social and cultural importance. During the caliphate of Umar, as many as four thousand mosques were constructed extending from Persia in the east to Egypt in the west.
Al- Masjid an-Nabawi and Masjid al-Haram were enlarged first during the reign of Umar and then during the reign of Uthman ibn Affan, who not only expanded them but also beautified them on a large scale.
During the caliphate of Umar, many new cities were founded. These included Kufa, Basra, and Fustat. These cities were laid out according to the principles of urban planning. All streets in these cities led to the Friday mosque , which was sited in the center of the city.
Markets were established at convenient points, which were overseen by market officers charged with ensuring the quality of goods.
The cities were divided into quarters, and each quarter was reserved for particular tribes. During the reign of Umar, there were restrictions on the construction of palatial buildings by the rich and elites--symbolic of the egalitarian society of Islam, where all were equal--although the restrictions were later revoked by Uthman because of the rise in the overall standard of living, and the construction of two-story buildings was permitted.
As a result, many palatial buildings were constructed throughout the empire, including Uthman's huge palace in Medina, Al-Zawar , constructed from his personal resources. Many buildings were built for administrative purposes. In the Dar-ul-Amarat quarters, government offices and residences for officers were sited.
Diwans were constructed to house official records. Bait-ul-Mal were used to house royal treasuries. Jails were constructed for the first time in Muslim history. In important cities, guest houses were constructed to serve traders and merchants coming from faraway places. Roads and bridges were constructed for public use. On the road from Medina to Mecca, shelters, wells, and meal houses were constructed at every stage for the convenience of the people who came for hajj.
Military cantonments were constructed at strategic points. Special stables were provided for cavalry, which could accommodate as many as 4, horses. Special pasture grounds were provided and maintained for Bait-ul-Mal animals. Canals were dug to irrigate fields as well as provide drinking water.
The Maqal canal was also dug from the Tigris. During the famine of , grain was brought from Egypt to Arabia through this canal, which saved the lives of millions. This proposal, however, did not materialize due to unknown reasons, and it was years later that such a canal was dug--the modern Suez Canal.
Shuaibia was the port for Mecca, but it was inconvenient, so Uthman had a new seaport built at Jeddah. Uthman also reformed the city's police departments. The Rashidun army was the primary arm of the Islamic armed forces of the 7th century, serving alongside the Rashidun navy. The army maintained a very high level of discipline, strategic prowess and organization, along with the motivation and initiative of the officer corps.
For much of its history this army was one of the most powerful and effective military forces throughout the region. At the height of the Rashidun Caliphate, the maximum size of the army was around , troops. The Rashidun army was divided into infantry and light cavalry.
Reconstructing the military equipment of early Muslim armies is problematic. Compared with Roman armies or later medieval Muslim armies, the range of visual representation is very small, often imprecise. Physically, very little material evidence has survived, and much of it is difficult to date. The standard form of body armor was chainmail.
Hauberks and large wooden or wickerwork shields were also used as protection in combat. They also possessed spears and daggers. A beginning was made with the Quraish and the Ansar and the system was gradually extended to the whole of Arabia and to Muslims of conquered lands.
The basic strategy of early Muslim armies on campaign was to exploit every possible weakness of the enemy. Their key strength was mobility.
The cavalry had both horses and camels, the latter used as both transport and food for long marches through the desert e. The cavalry was the army's main strike force and also served as a strategic mobile reserve. The common tactic was to use the infantry and archers to engage and maintain contact with the enemy while the cavalry was held back till the enemy was fully engaged.
Once fully engaged, the enemy reserves were held by the infantry and archers, while the cavalry executed a pincer movement like modern tank and mechanized divisions to attack the enemy from the sides or to assault their base camps.
The Rashidun army was, in quality and strength, below the standard set by the Sasanian and Byzantine armies. Khalid ibn Walid was the first general of the Rashidun Caliphate to successfully conquer foreign lands.
During his campaign against the Sasanian Empire Iraq, - and the Byzantine Empire Syria, - , Khalid developed brilliant tactics that he used effectively against both enemy armies. Abu Bakr's strategy was to give his generals their mission, the geographical area in which that mission would be carried out, and resources for that purpose.
He would then leave it to his generals to accomplish their missions in whatever manner they chose. On the other hand, Umar, in the latter part of his Caliphate, adopted a more hands-on approach, directing his generals where to stay and when to move to the next target and who was to command the left and right wing of the army in each particular battle. This made conquests comparatively slower, but made the campaigns well-organized. Uthman and Ali reverted to Abu Bakr's method, giving missions to his generals and leaving the details to them.
Muhammad's daughters, Ruqayya and later Umm Kulthum. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages.
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September Learn how and when to remove this template message. The Rashidun Caliphate reached its greatest extent under Caliph Uthman , in Main caliphates. Parallel caliphates. Ancient Arab States. Arab Empires. Rashidun — Umayyads — Abbasids — Fatimids — Eastern Dynasties.
Western Dynasties. Arabian Peninsula. Imammate of Oman — Ziyadids — Yufirids — Ukhaidhirds — Rassids — Qarmatians — Wajihids — Sharifate of Mecca — Sulayhids — Sulaymanids — Uyunids — Zurayids — Nabhanids — Mahdids — Rasulids — Usfurids — Jarwanids — Kathirids — Tahirids — Jabrids — Qasimids — Ya'arubids — Upper Yafa — Muscat and Oman — Rashidids — Sultanate of Zanzibar — Qu'aitids — Emirate of Beihan — Idrisids — Mutawakkilite Kingdom — Current monarchies.
Main article: Succession to Muhammad. See also: The event of Ghadir Khumm. Expansion under Muhammad, Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, Related articles. The election of Uthman. Siege of Uthman. First Fitna. Sunni view of Ali Shia view of Ali. Further information: Islamic conquest of Persia. Muslim conquest of Syria.
Muslim conquest of Egypt. History of Islam in southern Italy. Shura , Majlis , Majlis-ash-Shura , and Islamic democracy. Sharia and Islamic ethics. Bayt al-mal. Rashidun Army.
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