ARCHITECTURE Form, Space, & Order Third Edition ARCHITECTURE Form, Form and space are the critical means of architecture that comprise a design. Architecture - Form, Space and Order 3rd teshimaryokan.info - Ebook download as PDF File ( .pdf) or read book online. Architecture - Form, Space and Order 3rd edition. Architecture: form space & order / Francis D.K. Ching Ching, Frank, . space, & order [electronic resource] / Francis D.K. Ching. - 3rd ed. Hoboken, N.J. .
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It can be elevated to honor a sacred or significant place; bermed to define outdoor spaces or buffer against undesirable conditions; carved or terraced to provide a suitable platform on which to build; or stepped to allow changes in elevation to be easily traversed. Because our perception of shape can be distorted by perspective foreshortening, we see the true shape of a plane only when we view it frontally. The singularity of the opening may be visually reinforced with a heavy frame or articulated trimwork. I also find the writing is alright, but is not always as clear as I wish it would be for me. The enclosure may consist of arcades or gallery spaces that promote the inclusion of surrounding buildings into their domain and activate the space they define. Design is above all a willful act, a purposeful endeavor.
Paperback Verified Purchase. Even if you are not into architecture and only into design or your an artist, this is a great book to have. It's got some amazing illustrations that are so beautiful to look at. I purchased not only the digital copy of this book but also the book copy of this. In an aritst perspective this is great to look at to see the basic structures of a building.
The illustrations are in sketch form and often describe each structure as well as location this is an awesome book to have. Reviewer Top Contributor: This is a soft covered textbook that was used for my interior design class.
It arrived with the corners slightly damaged. The book has a lot of pictures. Seemed to help me as a student better understand some new terminology but I will have to see if I wind up using that or not professionally. It's a book. One person found this helpful. As a non-artist taking a digital arts course, this is a textbook for me. I found the book to be a good discussion on architecture and spaces, but I've had to look up things talked about in the book several times on the Internet.
I also find the writing is alright, but is not always as clear as I wish it would be for me. For people who have already studied some art and architecture, though, I would imagine this would be an excellent book. What I really like, though, is how it is organized.
I needed this book for an interior design class. The book is indispensable in distilling key architectural concepts. It's just an introduction, but it really helps students to think in more architectural and 3-D terms.
There are also terrific examples and illustrations. The book isn't too dense and easy to read. Must have for architecture students, professionals and enthusiasts. Those who have panned this book weren't looking for insight into the thought process of architectural design. This book is not a cookbook, but a primarily graphical introductory intended to start the architecture student thinking how architects think. I'm not technically an architecture student, but rather an architecture design "hobbyist".
This book is a textbook, not a 5 lb. This text was purchased as a high-school graduation gift for a student who has an interest in architecture. IT is an older edition, but the material is still pertinent for modern building development. This author's work was recommended by a professional architect from Leo A. Daly who has a couple of decades of experience in the field. See all reviews. What other items do customers buy after viewing this item? Architectural Graphics Paperback. Architecture, Form, Space and Order Hardcover.
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This manner of presentation attempts to promote a more evocative understanding of the architecture one experiences, the architecture one encounters in literature, and the architecture one imagines while designing. Forrest Wilson, whose insights into the communication of design principles helped clarify the organization of the material, and whose support made its publication possible; James Tice, whose knowledge and understanding of architectural history and theory strengthened the development of this study; Norman Crowe, whose diligence and skill in the teaching of architecture encouraged me to pursue this work; Roger Sherwood, whose research into the organizational principles of form fostered the development of the chapter on ordering principles; Daniel Friedman, for his enthusiasm and careful editing of the final copy; Diane Turner and Philip Hamp, for their assistance in researching material for the illustrations; and to the editorial and production staff at Van Nostrand Reinhold, for their exceptional support and service during the making of the first edition.
For the second edition, my appreciation goes to the many students and their teachers who have used this book over the years and offered suggestions for its improvement as a reference and tool for study and teaching. I want to especially thank the following educators for their careful critique of the first edition: Rudolph Barton, Laurence A.
Clement, Jr. Steinfeld, Cheryl Wagner, James M. Wehler, and Robert L. In preparing this third edition, I am thankful to Michele Chiuini, Ahmeen Farooq, and Dexter Hulse for their thoughtful reviews of the second edition. While I have attempted to incorporate much of their wise counsel, I remain solely responsible for any deficiencies remaining in the text.
To Debra, Emily, and Andrew, whose love of life it is ultimately the role of architecture to house. These conditions may be purely functional in nature, or they may also reflect in varying degrees the social, political, and economic climate. In any case, it is assumed that the existing set of conditions—the problem—is less than satisfactory and that a new set of conditions—a solution—would be desirable.
The act of creating architecture, then, is a problem-solving or design process. The initial phase of any design process is the recognition of a problematic condition and the decision to find a solution to it. Design is above all a willful act, a purposeful endeavor. A designer must first document the existing conditions of a problem, define its context, and collect relevant data to be assimilated and analyzed.
This is the critical phase of the design process since the nature of a solution is inexorably related to how a problem is perceived, defined, and articulated. Piet Hein, the noted Danish poet and scientist, puts it this way: The shaping of the question is part of the answer.
This book focuses, therefore, on broadening and enriching a vocabulary of design through the study of its essential elements and principles and the exploration of a wide array of solutions to architectural problems developed over the course of human history. As an art, architecture is more than satisfying the purely functional requirements of a building program. Fundamentally, the physical manifestations of architecture accommodate human activity. However, the arrangement and ordering of forms and spaces also determine how architecture might promote endeavors, elicit responses, and communicate meaning.
So while this study focuses on formal and spatial ideas, it is not intended to diminish the importance of the social, political, or economic aspects of architecture. Form and space are presented not as ends in themselves but as means to solve a problem in response to conditions of function, purpose, and context—that is, architecturally.
The analogy may be made that one must know and understand the alphabet before words can be formed and a vocabulary developed; one must understand the rules of grammar and syntax before sentences can be constructed; one must understand the principles of composition before essays, novels, and the like can be written. Once these elements are understood, one can write poignantly or with force, call for peace or incite to riot, comment on trivia or speak with insight and meaning.
In a similar way, it might be appropriate to be able to recognize the basic elements of form and space and understand how they can be manipulated and organized in the development of a design concept, before addressing the more vital issue of meaning in architecture.
All of these constituents can be perceived and experienced. Some Architectural order is created when the organization of parts makes visible may be readily apparent while others are more obscure to our intellect and their relationships to each other and the structure as a whole.
When these senses. Some may convey images and meaning while others serve as singular nature of the whole, then a conceptual order exists—an order that qualifiers or modifiers of these messages.
Villa Savoye, Poissy, east of Paris, —31, Le Corbusier This graphic analysis illustrates the way architecture embodies the harmonious integration of interacting and interrelated parts into a complex and unified whole. Its inside order accommodates the multiple functions of a house, domestic scale, and partial mystery inherent in a sense of privacy.
Its outside order expresses the unity of the idea of house at an easy scale appropriate to the green field it dominated and possibly to the city it will one day be part of. If the line shifts to form a plane, we obtain a two-dimensional element. In the movement from plane to spaces, the clash of planes gives rise to body three-dimensional. A summary of the kinetic energies which move the point into a line, the line into a plane, and the plane into a spatial dimension.
Each element is first considered as a conceptual element, then as a visual element in the vocabulary of architectural design. While they do not actually exist, we nevertheless feel their presence. We can sense a point at the meeting of two lines, a line marking the contour of a plane, a plane enclosing a volume, and the volume of an object that occupies space. When made visible to the eye on paper or in three-dimensional space, these elements become form with characteristics of substance, shape, size, color, and texture.
As we experience these forms in our environment, we should be able to perceive in their structure the existence of the primary elements of point, line, plane, and volume. Point A point extended becomes a Line with properties of: As the prime element in the vocabulary of form, a point can serve to mark: At the center of its environment, a point is stable and at rest, organizing surrounding elements about itself and dominating its field.
When the point is moved off-center, however, its field becomes more aggressive and begins to compete for visual supremacy. Visual tension is created between the point and its field. To visibly mark a position in space or on the ground plane, a point must be projected vertically into a linear form, as a column, obelisk, or tower. Any such columnar element is seen in plan as a point and therefore retains the visual characteristics of a point. Other point-generated forms that share these same visual attributes are the: Piazza del Campidoglio, Rome, c.
The equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius marks the center of this urban space. Michel, France, 13th century and later. The pyramidal composition culminates in a spire that serves to establish this fortified monastery as a specific place in the landscape. Although the points give this line finite length, the line can also be considered a segment of an infinitely longer path.
Two points further suggest an axis perpendicular to the line they describe and about which they are symmetrical. Because this axis may be infinite in length, it can be at times more dominant than the described line.
In both cases, however, the described line and the perpendicular axis are optically more dominant than the infinite number of lines that may pass through each of the individual points. Extended vertically, the two points define both a plane of entry and an approach perpendicular to it. The Mall, Washington, D. Conceptually, a line has length, but no width or depth.
Whereas a point is by nature static, a line, in describing the path of a point in motion, is capable of visually expressing direction, movement, and growth.
A line is a critical element in the formation of any visual construction. It can serve to: It is seen as a line simply because its length dominates its width. The character of a line, whether taut or limp, bold or tentative, graceful or ragged, is determined by our perception of its length—width ratio, its contour, and its degree of continuity.
Even the simple repetition of like or similar elements, if continuous enough, can be regarded as a line. This type of line has significant textural qualities. The orientation of a line affects its role in a visual construction. While a vertical line can express a state of equilibrium with the force of gravity, symbolize the human condition, or mark a position in space, a horizontal line can represent stability, the ground plane, the horizon, or a body at rest.
An oblique line is a deviation from the vertical or horizontal. It may be seen as a vertical line falling or a horizontal line rising. In either case, whether it is falling toward a point on the ground plane or rising to a place in the sky, it is dynamic and visually active in its unbalanced state. Place de la Concorde, Paris. The obelisk, which upright megalith, usually standing alone This cylindrical shaft commemorates marked the entrance to the Amon temple at Luxor, but sometimes aligned with others.
Louis Phillipe and installed in Vertical linear elements can also define a transparent volume of space. In the example illustrated to the left, four minaret towers outline a spatial field from which the dome of the Selim Mosque rises in splendor. Selim Mosque, Edirne, Turkey, A. In these three examples, linear elements: Salginatobel Bridge, Switzerland, —30, Robert Maillart.
The sculptured female figures stand as columnar supports for the Beams and girders have the bending strength to span the space entablature. Katsura Imperial Villa, Kyoto, Japan, 17th century. Linear columns and beams together form a three-dimensional framework for architectural space. An example is the axis, a regulating line established by two distant points in space and about which elements are symmetrically arranged.
Villa Aldobrandini, Italy, —, Giacomo Della Porta House 10, , John Hejduk Although architectural space exists in three dimensions, it can be linear in form to accommodate the path of movement through a building and link its spaces to one another. Buildings also can be linear in form, particularly when they consist of repetitive spaces organized along a circulation path.
As illustrated here, linear building forms have the ability to enclose exterior spaces as well as adapt to the environmental conditions of a site. These lines can be expressed by joints within or between building materials, by frames around window or door openings, or by a structural grid of columns and beams.
How these linear elements affect the texture of a surface will depend on their visual weight, spacing, and direction. A transparent spatial membrane can be stretched between them to acknowledge their visual relationship. The closer these lines are to each other, the stronger will be the sense of plane they convey. A series of parallel lines, through their repetitiveness, reinforces our perception of the plane they describe.
As these lines extend themselves along the plane they describe, the implied plane becomes real and the original voids between the lines revert to being mere interruptions of the planar surface. The diagrams illustrate the transformation of a row of round columns, initially supporting a portion of a wall, then evolving into square piers which are an integral part of the wall plane, and finally becoming pilasters—remnants of the original columns occurring as a relief along the surface of the wall.
A colonnaded facade can be penetrated easily for entry, offers a degree of shelter from the elements, and forms a semi-transparent screen that unifies individual building forms behind it. The Basilica, Vicenza, Italy. Andrea Palladio designed this two-story loggia in to wrap around an existing medieval structure. This addition not only buttressed the existing structure but also acted as a screen that disguised the irregularity of the original core and presented a Stoa of Attalus fronting the Agora in Athens uniform but elegant face to the Piazza del Signori.
Temple of Athena Polias, Priene, c. Philibert, Tournus, France, — This view of the nave shows how rows of columns can provide a rhythmic measure of space. Vertical and horizontal linear elements together can define a volume of space such as the solarium illustrated to the right. Note that the form of the volume is determined solely by the configuration of the linear elements. Conceptually, a plane has length and width, but no depth.