A new reference grammar of modern spanish pdf

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Download Citation on ResearchGate | A New Reference Grammar to Modern Spanish | For many years A NEW REFERENCE GRAMMAR OF. A new reference grammar of modern spanish. [John Butt; Carmen Benjamin] -- Long-trusted as the most practical and comprehensive Spanish grammar book. For many years A NEW REFERENCE GRAMMAR OF MODERN SPANISH has been trusted by students and teachers as the standard English-language.

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A New Reference Grammar of Modern Spanish. Authors. John Butt PDF · Comparison of adjectives and adverbs. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin. Pages Spanish, A New Reference Grammar of Modern (Butt & Benjamin) - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. jo. Spanish, A New Reference Grammar of Modern (Butt & Benjamin).pdf - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online.

Yo soy de las que estdn afavor or. No me habia dado cuenta de 10 guapa que era Me irritan par 10 tontos que son No te has fijado en 10 delgada que se ha quedado? The -a is not elided in pronunciation before words beginning with a vowel other than a: Tengo un padre que es inaguantable 'I've got an unbearable father'. The day is or should be long past when one could claim that the only variety of Spanish worth serious study and imitation is the standard language of Spain, which is based on the Castilian dialect of the North and Centre, a variety nowadays spoken by less than eight per cent of the Spanish-speaking world.

FREE Shipping. Customers who bought this item also bought. Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 of 1. En otras palabras: Patricia V. Oxford Spanish Dictionary. Oxford Dictionaries. English Grammar for Students of Spanish: Emily Spinelli. Christopher Kendris. Practice Makes Perfect: Advanced Spanish Grammar, Second Edition. Rogelio Alonso. Review The fifth edition reaffirms A New Reference Grammar of Modern Spanish as the most practical and comprehensive Spanish grammar book on the market.

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Top Reviews Most recent Top Reviews. There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Paperback Verified Purchase. I am reading this grammar reference currently. What sets it apart from all others is the absurdly powerful insight offered. Imagine a university lecturer that has the knack to explain exactly those fine details that are needed to fully grasp the nuances of a complex subject eloquently. By means of example, some professors stand at the board and mumble. Others go through the motions and inject a joke here and there to avoid nodding heads.

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Inspiring doesn't do justice to that kind of effort. Butt and Benjamin belong to this group applied to language learning. My background in the Spanish Language is this: I am Hispanic but I grew up speaking only english in my family. I started learning Spanish in the 8th grade.

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A new reference grammar of modern spanish

The book is detail oriented, but don't let that intimidate you especially if you are just starting to learn the language. If you intend to study spanish and learn to speak, read, and write the language this book will be of great help. I wish I had known about this book when I was in undergraduate school. I've been a student of the Spanish language since , lived in Miami for 30 years, in Spain for nearly 20 years.

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A New Reference Grammar of Modern Spanish

Without it, I would never have achieved the fluency that I have now. I am often taken to be a native speaker, in part because of the accent I developed living in Miami, but, primarily, it's because of my command of the language made possible by my having used this book to master the grammar. It's not your typical grammar, meant to be taken chapter by chapter. Rather, it's more like a cookbook of the Spanish language, with chapters devoted to specific grammatical and syntactical issues and with adequate examples.

No matter what aspect of the language you want to now about, this book covers it. If it doesn't cover it, you don't need to know it. Seriously, it is without equal in the category of Spanish grammar books and is the finest, most accurate and up-to-date grammar book I've ever seen. I have now purchased this book for the 4th time, because, each time it's updated, it just gets better I would never have believed that possible from the 1st edition.

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La Haya 'the Hague'. EI Havre. EI Cair Articles 40 iii All place names require the article when they are qualified or restricted by a following adjective. La Meca 'Mecca'. It is not used in this way before the names of men. But if the person is named the article is omitted. Cuba 3. Dale un beso a papa 'Give daddy a kiss'. Latin-Americans and well-spoken Spaniards use the more refined el tipo.

Entre a dar un beso a la abuela 'I went in to give grandmother a kiss'. This rule may not be observed everywhere. Uses and omission of the definite article 41 Use of the article before first names.

Students of Portuguese should remember to omit the article in Spanish: The definite article is not. Di un beso a la tia 'I gave auntie a kiss'.

But a few lines above in the same article Che nunca fue derrotado. In some places. Chile and Catalonia. It is not used if the person is directly addressed: Pase usted. Father Blanco'. EI abuelo comia en silencio 'Grandfather was eating in silence'. The definite article usually appears before nicknames: Javier Marcos. Tiene ochenta afios 'He's eighty'. Vivo en el piso 38 una disposici6n del articulo de La Constituci6n unas fotos def93 el diez por ciento I live in apartment 38 a provision in Art.

Some speakers differentiate estar en la cama 'to be in bed' and estar en cama 'to be illIsick in bed'. Las mujeres de los mineros siempre estamos en vilo pensando en los hombres A.

A New Reference Grammar of Modern Spanish, 4th edition | Taylor & Francis Group

L6pez Salinas. The indefinite article 43 en todas partes cf. Lo abri6 sin llave 'He opened it without a key'. Spanish unos guantes 'some gloves'. French des gants. Spanish regularly omits the article in sentences of the type Tiene secretaria 'He's got a secretary'. Son unos genios incomprendidos 'They're misunderstood geniuses'. Es mentira 'It's a lie' b It can appear in the plural: In this case the noun can be thought of as a sort of adjective that simply allocates the noun to a general type: Han organizado unas manifestaciones 'They've organized demonstrations'.

This happens whenever the generic or universal features of the noun are being stressed. Mario es ingeniero 'Mario's an engineer'. The following sections 3.

Grammar a pdf reference modern spanish new of

English tends to omit the article in such cases: Entraron un hombre y una mujer Compre una mtiquina de escribir y una papelera para mi despacho A man and a woman entered I bought a typewriter and a wastepaper basket for my office However. Compare Pepe tiene secretaria 'Pepe's got a secretary' like most bosses and Pepe tiene una secretaria que habla chino 'Pepe's got a Chinesespeaking secretary' unlike most bosses. Unlike French. Tengo coche 1've got a car'.

The indefinite article 45 Se hizo detective. Eres un genio 'You're a genius'. Es una lata colloquial It's a nuisance It's a pity Es una pena Es un problema It's a problem Ha sido un exito It was a success Omission may occur after the negative verb even though it is not usual after the positive verb: What have you come here to look at? This is an affair that has nothing to do with you!

Vargas Uosa. I see you're a woman of good taste But nouns denoting personal qualities rather than membership of a profession or other group require the article: Omission is more common in negative sentences and apparently more frequent in Peninsular Spanish than in Latin-American. Delibes jVayanse! But the resulting noun phrase may still be a recognized profession or a generic type. Es un profesor "'Who was that who said hello? Compare es actor 'He's an actor' and Es un actor que nunca encuentra trabajo 'He's an actor who never finds work'.

Es mar de veras M. Soy profesor de espafiol. Es un ladr6n 'He's a thief' i. Argentina Veo que es usted mujer de buen gusto He became a detective.

A rare English counterpart is the optional omission of 'a' with 'part': Notes i The article is retained if it means 'one of.. Tenias idea de 10 que serias capaz de hacer? Ya he sacado entrada Vamos a buscarle novia Siempre lleva anillo Hubo quien se ofendi6 y sac6 pistola M.

Purists occasionally complain about this increasing use of the indefinite article. Notes i If the follOwing noun is not generic but merely implies the possession of certain qualities. Novela es toda obra de ficci6n que. Llevaba una falda blanca Tenia [ Peru Barcelona tiene puerto y parque y tranvfa y metro y autobUs y cine L.. El hombre es un lobo para el hombre 'Man is a wolf to man' but not a member of the wolf species. Spain She was wearing a white skirt She had a cute face like a freckled boy's Use of unluna with unqualified nouns may therefore hint at some suppressed comment: Tiene una mujer.

Esos muchachos son unas nifias 'Those boys are behaving like little girls'. Tiene un cache. This may sound insinuating. Sometimes the noun denotes some object or person. Argentina It is a special privilege of certain thoroughbred Celtic families In all the above examples the article could be used. J una carita de chico pecoso. J con levit6n de largos bolsillos 'He was a little old man. These nouns refer to things of which one would normally have or be carrying only one at a time: Son unos desgraciados 'They're wretches'.

But if the resulting noun phrase is still generic the article may still be omitted: TI1 eres hombre respetable 'You're a respectable man'.. Tengo un padre que es inaguantable 'I've got an unbearable father'. They're repentant conservatives': Argentina Spanish today. Tiene un novioen Burgos y otro en Huelva Have you got a dollar? Have you bought a novel? She's got one boyfriend in Burgos and another in Huelva 3. El EspaflOl de hoy The indefinite article 47 Note If it would be normal to have more than one of the things denoted..

Es pastor protestante 'He's a protestant vicar'. Colonel Gaddafi of Libya. Tengo padre 'I've got a father' Juan es cobarde Juan es un cobarde Papa es un fascista Soy un extranjero John is cowardly John is a coward Father is a fascist I'm foreignla foreigner Papa es fascista implies 'he's a committed Fascist'. But in informal language. Do you have a brother? The indefinite article is also used in the plural so as to retain the distinction: Son desgraciados 'They're unhappy'.

Note This rule also applies in the plural: Par toda com ida me dieron un plato de arroz 'For a meal they gave me a plate of rice' i. Por respuesta le dio un beso 'She gave him a kiss as a reply'. How could he have done such a thing? Siempre va con abrigo una casa con jardtn La Esfinge E. He always wears an overcoat a house with a garden The Sphinx is a lion stretched out on the ground. Spain The government has organized. The indefinite article 49 For a comparison of algunos and unos.

It can therefore add a modest note and may sometimes be the equivalent of the colloquial disclaimer 'just a couple of': El gobierno ha organizado unas elecciones Cambio Son Son Son Son niiias unas niflas payasos unos payasos They're little girls They're acting like little girls They're circus clowns They're acting like clowns.

El pacifismo deberia traducirse en unos comportamientos politicos que no tuviesen ninguna indulgencia con los violentos La Vanguardia. If the noun denotes a symmetrical object like trousers. The Spanish indefinite article appears in the plural with various meanings: Le dieron unas monedas Tomamos unas cervezas Todavia tenia unos restos de fe They gave him some coins We had some beers He still had some vestiges of faith When used thus it may merely moderate the force of a following noun.

Me he caido por unas escaleras Voy a tomarme unas vacaciones Llevaba unos pantalones a rayas Se habia puesto unas gafas que no intelectualizaban su rostro F. Spain Mira estas fotos. It is not clear whether los. Spain Flashing green electric lights announced the departure of the flight where unas letras verdes electricas e intermitentes.

Expertos americanos afirman que.. In other cases omission produces a literary effect: Electricas letras verdes intermitentes anunciaron la salida del vuelo M. American experts claim that. Vazquez Montalban. The omission is no doubt a journalistic ruse designed to gloss over the fact that only one or two experts were actually consulted.

Spoken Spanish requires los if the meaning is'all American experts'. Only a few nouns. Descriptive adjectives can be thought of as replacing a simple relative clause: Unlike descriptive adjectives. Judge and Healey use the term 'relational'. This problem is discussed in section 4. They are discussed in detail at 4. Such adjectival use of nouns is discussed at 4. They are discussed at 4. This means that nearly all adjectives have at least two forms. In this respect the difference between adjectives and nouns in Spanish is not very clear.

See Type 3 are invariable in form few. Type 1 show agreement in number and gender with the noun. Espaflol and andaluz are in fact the only two common type 1 adjectives ending in a consonant other than -n. Type 2 show agreement for number but not for gender. By the normal rules of spelling explained at Estas materias primas Ie son muy necesarias 'These raw materials are very necessary for himlyou'. The feminine of type 1 adjectives is formed thus: For two exceptions to this rule.

Me es importante 'It's important to me'. Nos es imprescindible 'He's indispensable to us'. Castano is used for hair and eyes: Cafe no agreement is used for 'brown' in many parts of Latin America. Singular Plural bueno buena musulman musulmana aragones aragonesa saltarfn saltarina mandon mandona hablador habladora regordete regordeta espanol espanola andaluz andaluza buenos buenas musulmanes musulmanas aragoneses aragonesas saltarines saltarinas mandones mandonas habladores habladoras regordetes regordetas espanoles espanolas andaluces andaluzas good Muslim Aragonese restless.

This class includes with the exceptions noted above: Montes 'wild' Le. Marron is chiefly used for artificial things like shoes. By the normal rules of spelling. The plural is formed: Morphology of adjectives 53 The plural of type 1 adjectives is formed thus: These are: A few other popular or slang forms in -nta occur. Singular Plural una rata macho unas ratas macho la camisa beige El Pafs uses las camisas beige the spelling beis Other common members of this class are: See also 2.

Some words. Carmesf 'crimson' is always pluralized like a regular type 2 adjective carmes[es by the Spanish writer Antonio Gala in his best-selling novel EI manuscrito carmesf Peru 'Our obligation is to live constantly alert. Luis Spota. Spain 'folds of paper from Europe. Compare niiios modelo 'model children' and niiios modelos 'child models'. But this seems to be avoided in careful language: Los jacarandaes se pusieron violetas E.. Argentina 'The jacarandas turned violet'.

Mexico 'the violet eyes were Mary's'.. It is also pluralized in the novels of the Mexican. The phrase with color is sometimes dropped and the noun is then used like a type 3 adjective. Como sonrefa la rosa manana Antonio Machado. Spain 'ultraviolet rays' Morphology of adjectives 55 Notes i This group is unstable.

Nuestra obligaci6n es vivir constantemente alertas M. Other nouns so used are: Spain 'her violet eyes are blinking'. Traeme agua hirviendo Tienes la frente ardiendo Yo mas bien soy un carb6n ardiendo Le.

Hirviendo and ardiendo are invariable in form. Notes i Well-established compound adjectives of this kind may be used on their own. There are two exceptions. In compound adjectives joined by a hyphen. Peru Bring me some boiling water Your forehead is burning I feel more like a burning coal Chorreando 'dripping wet' may be another exception in Llevo la ropa chorreando 'my clothes are dripping wet'.

These agree like normal adjectives: Agreement of adjectives 57 Such examples excepted. Grande is not shortened if mas or menos precede: It is not shortened when it means 'holy': Excelencia 'Excellency' see 1.

The -de is occasionally retained in literary styles for purposes of emphasis or before words beginning with a vowel: For the agreement of adjectives with titles like Alteza 'Highness'. Some of the examples and arguments in this section are inspired by Judge and Healey Santo Domingo. This usage is also occasionally seen in several good Spanish writers of the first half of the twentieth century. Mi madre es inglesa 'My mother is English'. One or more feminine nouns require a feminine adjective: Plural agreement emphasizes the fact that the 0 is not exclusive i.

Puede venir Mario 0 su hermano. Buscaban una tienda 0 un restaurante abiertos abiertos unambiguously refers to both Buscaban la mujer 0 el hombre capaces de asumir el cargo for the absence of personal a see Spanish is more tolerant than French of a masculine adjective following a feminine noun.

In the former case the adjective agrees in gender with the last noun in the series. Mi padre es ingles 'My father is English'.

Spanish, A New Reference Grammar of Modern (Butt & Benjamin)

Los arbustos y las flores marchitos makes the adjective refer unambiguously to both nouns and is the normal construction. Los presidentes venezolanos y peruanos means 'the presidents of Venezuela and the presidents of Peru'.

Maria habla muy claro 'Maria speaks very clearly'. Two or more nouns of different gender require a masculine plural adjective: Notes i Seco Gerboin and C. Here the adjective does not modify the noun nataci6n but the idea demasiada nataci6n. This avoids the awkward combination of a plural adjective with a singular noun: Leroy For further details on agreement with collective nouns.

Peru It's absurd to do it without help Fantastic. Agreement of adjectives 59 b With ni 'nor' the plural is usual: Tampoco es bueno demasiada nataci6n L. Buena would also be correct.

Note French does not allow this construction. Es absurdo hacerlo sin ayuda Fantastico. See note ii Danish Scottish rare in speech. See note i Algeria. The following are noteworthy for the use of the definite article with the names of countries.

Some of the more common are: Alava Alcala alaves complutense Avila Badajoz abulense pacense 6 Hindus. Basques and Galicians sometimes object to el castellano being called el espaiiol.

Mexico or the Caribbean. Latinoamerica includes countries where other Latin-based languages are spoken. However el espaiiol has political overtones for autonomists. A few other Mexican place names are similarly affected. In Latin America norteamericano is taken to mean our 'American' and is more common than estadounidense. The same objection is also heard from some Latin-Americans. For agreement with Estados Unidos.

The spelling with x honours the memory of the Mexica or Aztecs. Xalapa or Jalapa. El Pais Spain always prints Mexico. Standard Peninsular usage prefers sud. The adjective from America del sur or Sudamerica 'South America'. French Guyana. Spanishspeaking Latin-Americans dislike terms like hispanoamericano or 'Spanish-American' for the same reason that US citizens would not like to be called 'British Americans'. El castellano now means the same as el espaiiol.

The form suramericano is rejected by the style-book of El Pais and is generally considered incorrect in Spain. Americano is assumed to mean latinoamericano. Ana es riquisima 'Ana is extremely rich' from rico. This suffix is sometimes misnamed a 'superlative' suffix.

It intensifies the original meaning. It cannot be added to all adjectives. Es mayorcisimo 'He's very old'. Intensive forms of the adjective 63 b Adjectives ending in -z change the z to c: Endeblelendeblfsimo 'feeble' is a rare exception.

There are exceptions. Note Mayorcisimo 'very old' is often heard.

Grammar modern of new a spanish pdf reference

For the position of ordinal numerals see It is hardly true to say that the adjective 'normally' follows the noun in Spanish. Adjective position is much more flexible than in English and a.

Tienes que ser mas persona decente Este libro es menos novela que el otro Es mas bailarina que actriz Su reacci6n es puro teatro You've got to be more of a decent person This book is less of a novel than the other She's more of a dancer than an actress His reaction is pure theatre Such nouns do not agree in number or gender with the word they modify.

If an English adjective sounds wrong when stressed. Odio las novelas hist6ricas '1 hate historical novels' refers only to those novels which are historical. Some always precede the noun. Many factors of convention. Moreover there seem to be as yet unresearched differences between Peninsular and American-Spanish. As a useful. Non-restrictive adjectives typically refer to the whole of the entity denoted by the noun: If an English adjective sounds correct when spoken with a heavy stress or.

The basic rule seems to be: Thus if one stresses 'beautiful' in 'the beautiful sun of Spain'. Use of nouns as adjectives 65 good deal more flexible than in French.

No me gustan las manzanas agrias. Restrictive adjectives narrow the scope of the noun that precedes them: Such adjectives may describe the speaker's impression. These express the origin. Mi espanola impulsividad me hace escribir estas lfneas reader's letter in Cambio They can include a vast range of.

These adjectives are non-restrictive because the speaker wishes to eliminate from the utterance any reference to another tragedy. See 4. Traigame una espumadera limpia. Tiene las manos largas Tiene el pelo rizado She has long hands He's got curly hair 4. Their use is discussed at 4. Spain 'My Spanish impulsiveness makes me write these lines'.

Spain La pera es de flcil digesti6n cookery book. Dios Todopoderoso 'Almighty God'. Peru una guirnalda de blancas flores L. Argentina Ademds. Baja California 'Lower California' cf. America Central. Anuncian una utillinterna not linterna util 'They are advertising a useful torch' and Anuncian una linterna muy util 'They are advertising a very useful torch'. Since the use of such pre-posed adjectives conveys an emotional message.

With mas and menos either position is possible: The following examples will help to train the ear. Sensational Summer Offer! Sometimes the difference between post-posed and pre-posed adjectives can be significant. But very often the difference is merely stylistic. Becquer and Casta Esteban had married The revolution meant for me a just redistribution of wealth a wreath of white flowers Pears are easily digested the rising cost of land within the cities Notes i Adjective position is arbitrarily fixed in many set phrases: Alto Egipto 'Upper Egypt'.

Use of nouns as adjectives 67 adjectives indicating shape. Spain el creciente costa de la tierra urbana the almost forgotten name of James MacPherson Moreover. Garcia Marquez. Spain 'the most popular presenter on Italian TV'. Desde nuestro campamento se veia el imponente Everest El izquierdista Frente Farabundo Marti one could see imposing mount Everest from our camp the left-wing Farabundo Marti Front but Existe un Unamuno politico y comprometido. They are very common in literary.

Tuvo que parar en boxes para cambiar sus deterioradas ruedas El Pais 'He had to stop in the pits to change his worn tyres' ruedas deterioradas might imply that only some of his tyres were worn: These are infrequent in everyday or scientific or technical language. If they are post-posed. Thus las flores de Espana 'the flowers of Spain' is not a compound. Malo is weaker before the noun. When used restrictively. Only long familiarity with the language will provide a certain guide to what is or is not a compound noun.

Valiente soldado eres ttl tu dichosa familia estas condenadas hormigas 4. Some noun phrases are uncertain: Further examples: Mala mujer may be a euphemism for prostitute.

Tengo un abrigo bueno para los fines de semana. Use of nouns as adjectives 69 my rotten luck this damned typewriter! A great soldier you are I don't think. When they precede the noun they usually express a subjective evaluation which is usually the case. But una casa de munecas 'a dolls' house' is a compound and is therefore inseparable: A mi siempre me pone buena cara 'He always makes an effort to be nice to me'.

Un pequeiio problema is normal since 'problem' is an abstract noun. En buen lio te has metido 'You're in a fine mess'. For discussion of this iv phenomenon see Nuevo is usually post-posed when it means 'brand-new'. This distinction is overridden for purposes of contrast: Prefiero el coche nuevo al viejo 'I prefer our new Le. La hare en ambos casos I'll do it in both cases las llamadas democracias the so-called 'democracies' la mera menci6n del asunto the mere mention of the topic Llevaba mucho dinero He was carrying a lot of money Busquemos ofro medico Let's look for another doctor.

Viejo may be pre-posed when it means 'not young': Lo hizo de buena gana 'He did it willingly'. The following are taken from various printed sources. Many of them are rejected as jargon or journalese by careful speakers.

Many new attributive adjectives have been coined in recent decades. There is no fixed rule for forming such adjectives from nouns. Such pairs seem to be more common in Spanish and this may confuse English-speakers. In a few cases. A preceding indefinite article restores the meaning 'little': The two languages often coincide: EL es mas inteLigente y emprendedor que su hermano 'He's more intelligent and enterprising than his brother'.

I Regular comparison With the exception of the six adjectives and adverbs listed at 5. Es menos c6modo y Limpio 'It's less comfortable and clean'. French aussi. When they are used as adverbs they are invariable. Foreigners also tend to overlook the difference between mas de and mas que and often fail to use del que or de 10 que before clauses. Serfa mas focil dejar su carta sin contestar It would be easiest or 'easier' to leave his letter unanswered This can be differentiated from the comparative by using Lo mas facil serfa dejar su carta sin contestar.

A mi no me gusta pegar a los nifios. In certain cases. Es mas bueno que el pan set phrase 'He has a heart of gold' lit. Notes i Students of French must avoid repeating the article: Este caballo es el mas cansado. Argentina but the deepest layer in me lit. Students of French must remember not to use the article: The issue could be clarified by recasting the sentence using ser: Ella es la mas alterada.

Cuba the course that's least interesting is. De las tres niflas la que canta mejor es Ana Of the three girls. Aurora es la que parece menos espanola. El amor sin celos es e1 mas noble compared with other loves Las pizzas con anchoas son las mejores Love without jealousy is the noblest Pizzas with anchovies are the best 5.

The difference is crucial: Mi abuelo tiene mas de cien afLos Son mas de las tres y media Estaba seguro de que no aguantarlas quieta durante mas de 6 meses A.

No he trafdo mas de mil 'I haven't brought more than 1. Comiste a mas de tres 'You ate more than three people' cannibalism. Tiene mas fuerzas que tres hombres juntos 'He's stronger than three men together'. Este restaurante es mas carD que antes This restaurant is dearer than before Cansa mas el viaje que el empleo The travelling is more tiring than the job Notes i Care must be taken not to confuse this construction with no.

Spanish thus removes an ambiguity that affects English: Comiste mas que tres 'You ate more than three people eat '. The reason is that there is no comparison with an actual number. No he trafdo mas que 10 que usted ha pedido 'I've only brought what you asked for'. El viento me vuelve mucho mas loca de 10 que mi marido y ex maridos dicen que estoy Carmen Rico-Godoy.

Spain The wind drives me much crazier than my husbands and ex-husbands say I am They did it less well than we hoped Don't try to be more stupid than you are more impressive than was hoped. Mas as a colloquial intensifier 77 However. This use of nunca and of other negative words used with a positive meaning. Spain mas de 10 posible. In such cases the appropriate form of del que must be used to convert the verb phrase into a noun phrase: Es mas inteligente de 10 que crees.

Habfa hecho mas que 10 posible para que Angela Vicario se muriera en vida G. Casta mas que gana 'He spends more i. Spain Lo hicieron menos bien de 10 que esperabamos No se haga el estupido mas de 10 que es M. Most informants condemned them as badly formed. Mas acentuado sera el sabor del ajo. Heavens you're stupid. Lo mas grande 10 ponemos abajo 'Let's put the biggest things underneath'.

Mayor is used to mean 'greater' or 'greatest': Is he drunk! Mi hermano es mayor que el tuyo mi hermano mayor Tienes dieciseis afzos pero pareces mayor. Estti mas borracho. Tengo mas amigos que tu 'I've got more friends than you'. Tiene mas dinero que yo 'He's got more money than me'.

It can be used for dimensions only where English would allow 'less': Tengo menos amigos que ta 'I've got less friends than you'. Also el mas pequeno de la familia. Menor is used in the same contexts as mayor in b. Tiene menos dinero que yo 'He's got less money than me'. Spain Virginia era unos meses menor que yo A. Before mas. Menor differs from mayor in that it cannot refer to dimensions: Mucho mas. Diego es tres aflos menor que Martita y cuatro que Sergio c.

Tienen muchos mas hijos que tu El proyecto era de mucha mas envergadura que el anterior Cincuenta personas eran muchas menos que en ocasiones anteriores mucha menor cantidad They have many more children than you The plan was much wider in scope than the previous one Fifty people was much less than on previous occasions a much smaller quantity Elsewhere.

Cuanto mas pensaba mas me aflig! Spain 'It's not so much that there are no secrets between two people because they decide it should be this way. Spain Cuantos mas Note 'All the more Estti cada vez mas delgado Hace cada vez menos calor He's getting thinner and thinner The weather's getting less and less hot 5.

No es tanto que entre dos personas. Use of contra or entre for cuanto in this construction is typical of everyday speech in many parts of Latin America. Se ri6 tanto que par poco revienta 'He laughed so much he nearly burst'. Comparisons of equality 81 Ninguno trabaja mucho.

Tan is used before adjectives. Igual que is used after verbs. Garda Marquez.

EstosrEstos no parecen tan grandes como los anteriores Usted 10 sabe tan bien como yo M. See 9. Es diferente del que ta tienes 'It's different from the one that you've got'. Latin-Americans may interpret igual as meaning 'anyway'.

This is familiar style. Igual llego tarde Carmen Rico-Godoy. Yo no se 10 que me espera hoy.

Igual nos vemos manana 'We're seeing one another tomorrow anyway'. Maybe I'll get back late'. Spain En eso ustedes son igual a las mujeres M.

You're the same as women in that respect She's the same as you You're equally slim She does it as well as you do Note In Spain. It now seems to us more accurate to say that the difference between ese and aquel simply reflects distance from the speaker.

Spanish differs from French. Notes i See 6.

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The first edition of this grammar explained este. But forms like este arma 'this weapon'. The ambiguities that very rarely arise from this can be removed by spelling the pronouns with an accent. German and English in having two words for 'that'. In spoken language they may appear after the noun, in which case they strongly imply that the thing referred to has been mentioned before or is very familiar.

In many cases this implies irritation, exasperation or an ironic tone and the construction should be used with caution. Compare esa mujer 'that woman' neutral tone and la mujer esa 'that woman However, a demonstrative adjective placed after the noun may simply indicate another reference to a well-known topic, as in Fue el quien se cas6 can la gallega esa 'He was the one who married that Galician girl whom we were talking about, whom we both know '.

Pero con Ia agencia esa que hil montado, se estti forrando el rifi6n A. Umbral, Spain, dialogue. But with that agency he's set up, he's simply raking it in I immediately ceased to have any importance for those people.

The definite article is obligatory if a demonstrative adjective follows the noun. The demonstrative in this case remains an adjective even though it follows the noun, so it is not written with an accent. The present confused situation can be summarized thus: Omission of the accent looks much,less illiterate than incorrect use of it. The old rules of spelling required that the demonstrative pronouns should always be distinguished from the adjectives by adding an accent, but even in carefully edited texts printed before , many inconsistencies appear.

The Academy's Nuevas normas of now state that the accent is required only to remove ambiguities of the sort found in esta protesta 'this protest' and esta protesta 'this woman is protesting' or ese espaflOl 'that Spaniard' and ese espafiol 'that Spanish one'.

Since such ambiguities almost never appear in written Spanish because context makes the meaning clear , the accent can in practice be omitted. Both the Academy and Seco , , now consider sentences like esta es mia 'this one's mine', un libra como ese 'a book like that one' to be correct. Nevertheless, most publishing houses, newspaper editors, the more cautious grammarians and ordinary citizens everywhere still write - or try to write - the accent on the demonstrative pronouns even when there is no ambiguity: El Pais orders its journalists to ignore the Academy and always write the accent on the pronouns.

The foreign student must therefore choose between following the Academy and thereby offending the eye of educated Spanish-speakers, or trying systematically to distinguish demonstrative adjectives from pronouns, which is not always easy. In this book we show both possibilities, e. There is one important inconsistency in printed usage. It has always been the practice in modem times, even before and among the most conservative writers, to omit the accent from demonstrative pronouns that are the antecedent of a relative clause or act as nominalizers aquel que, este de, etc.

As a result we write Esta novela es mejor que aqueUa en que. Point b above can hardly be over-stressed: Examples of demonstrative pronouns: Give me another knife - this one doesn't cut Antonio left the house more and more, this being a circumstance which did not pass unnoticed by his mother.

Note Use of demonstratives to refer to someone present is humorous or jIlsulting: Preguntaselo a este 'Ask this one here' e.

General a Este refers to things near to or associated with the speaker and is equivalent to 'this': It can refer to objects at any distance from the speaker and is therefore interchangeable with aquel provided no contrast is made with something even further away.

As far as time is concerned, ese refers to something in the past: Quien se acuerda ya de aquellas tardes sin televisi6n? Aquel may be yielding ground to ese in some dialects: But the distinction is a real one for the immense majority of speakers on both continents, and must be respected by the foreign student in those contexts in which a distinction is obligatory. Quiep plant6 ese arbol? Once an event in the past has been mentioned, ese can be used in subsequent references to it: Te acuerdas del39?

Pitol, Mexico, dialogue; she is no longer in his life. Well, at that time I was living in Bilbao He must have been getting on for sixty when he fell in with lit. In some phrases aquel is obligatory: Ahf 'Oust there' suggests a middle distance between aqui 'here' and aUi ' over there'.

Further examples of ese and aquel: Aquel appropriate for something no longer in existence Goytisolo, Spain Aquellas appropriate for a childhood memory.

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He was like one of those circus clowns who frighten the children Do you remember that desk that grandfather burnt when you were five? See 6. La Universidad de Mexico. La ausencia de disciplina y normas de selecci6n impide aquellos; la pletora indiscriminada de una poblaci6n de doscientos mil estudiantes dificulta esta c.

Fuentes, Mexico, dialogue. Mexico University encourages neither study nor friendship.

The lack of discipline and admission qualifications prevents the former; the undifferentiated mass of a student population of , hinders the latter. S Translation problems involving demonstratives a 'The El que or quien are the usual equivalents; aquel que usually written without an accent is used in formal language: Que se ponga de pie la que ha dicho eso 'Stand up the girl who said that', etc.

See Chapter 36 Nominalizers for discussion. Aquellos de is frowned on, except perhaps before ustedes or vosotros: Aquel, customarily written without an accent in this construction, is a literary replacement for el que when a preposition governs a relative pronoun, i.

The spoken language usually prefers to repeat the noun: Translation of these phrases may involve the problem of 'cleft' sentences, e. Fue por eso por 10 que pag6 demasiado Lat. Most neuter nouns came to be confused with masculine nouns in Vulgar Latin, and nowadays all traces of the neuter have vanished from the Spanish noun system.

However a few neuter pronouns and an article have survived in Spanish and remain as important features of the modem language. These forms are the 'neuter article' 10, the neuter third-person pronoun ello and its object form 10, the neuter relative pronouns 10 que and 10 cual, the neuter nominalizers 10 que and 10 de, and the neuter demonstrative pronouns esto, eso and aquello.

Neuter pronouns are necessary in Spanish to refer to concepts or ideas that have no gender. Masculine and feminine articles and pronouns can refer only to nouns or pronouns, present or implied, and nouns can be only masculine or feminine. Examples should make this clear: I don't want to talk about that one Le. For 10 que, 10 cual as relative pronouns meaning 'which For 10 que and 10 de as nominalizers Le.

For the humorous la que. For the colloquialla de meaning 'lots of' see 3. For the neuter pronouns todo 'everything', algo 'something', mucho 'a lot', and poco 'a little', see Chapter 9.

An adjective then often becomes a rough equivalent of an 1. La importante es que diga la verdad La bueno seria que tu volvieras a perder el dinero La bueno de tu casa es que tiene mucha luz La malo es que no quiere l Estoy en 10 correcto?

Papa se ha enterado de 10 nuestro A la impresi6n de enorme antigiiedad se agregaron otras: