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Top 100 arduino projects pdf

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Note: If you want to download list of arduino projects in PDF format, please Data Logger Project using an Arduino. Combo Blocks using an Arduino . Pneumatic Inverted Pendulum. . Turn your Arduino into the best gift of all. Arduino brings lot of possibilities in electronics for Electronic designers, Hobbyist, Makers and students, the best way to learn arduino. FREE PDF - Simple Arduino Uno projects for beginners tutorial. Learn about electronic components, circuits, breadboard and programming for a Makerspace.


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Best list of arduino project ideas along with sources we have published here. It includes arduino based battery charger, arduino based thermostat and etc. The main theme of this book is constructing Arduino projects that focus on sciences. In particular, this . The two resistors are in a series, so the total resistance is ohms. Imagine that the photo sensor is in the top position. It could drop teshimaryokan.info pdf on page + Arduino Projects: Whether you are just beginning or have extensive experience with Arduino, there is something here for teshimaryokan.info the Electronics Lab.

Anything is possible with the mighty power of Arduino. Program the AVR with test code. The draw functions can be found in draw. Just apt-get install the avr-gcc compiler, and you're in business. This is the main reason we use Atmel AVR micro controllers. Then we remembered an episode of "How it's made" from the Discovery Channel.

Program The Arduino. Prepare The Case. Make The Lock Turning Clamp. Make The Knock Detector Spring. Soldering The Circuits. Assembling The Case. Mounting, Testing, and Use. Changes And Improvements.

Turn signal biking jacket. Sew your power supply and LilyPad to your jacket. Test your stitching. Sew on your turn signal LEDs. Sew in your control switches. Sew in your indicator LEDs. Program your jacket. Tree Climbing Robot. Tools and Materials. Motor Controller. Power, cont. Motor Hubs. Building the Frame. Frame, cont. Electronics Platform. Rotation Sensors. Backbone Motor.

Mounting the Spine. Mounting the Spine, cont. Linear Slides. Wiring the Robot. Limit Switches. Battery Holders. Rave Rover - Mobile Dance Stage. Starting the Build. Cutting Parts. Fitting the floor. Getting LEDs ready. Installing the LEDs. Adding the Frame. Gathering More Materials. Frame Building. Getting frames to fit Mounting Components. More Mounting Pole Mounting.

Finishing the Electronics Drive Test! Installing Floor. Final touches. Speaker Install. Finally Done! Where to find parts Party Time! Type Case, the making of a low-resolution display. The idea. The build. The documentation process. Related Instructables. Sigh Collector. Material Needed. Build and Program Circuit. Hack into Air Pump.

Build the Sigh Collector main unit. Make the air bladder. Combine electronics with main unit. Install Check Valve and Pump. Build carrying case, Sew handle. Build and Program circuit for sigh detection. Assemble electronics into carrying case.

Cut and Sew chest strap and attach the stretch sensor. A word on Wireless. Get it before you hack it. What you will need. Removing the skin: Head first. Removing Skin: Remove Skin: Straight from the horses mouth. The body. The legs. Removing the face. Getting access to the Circuit board in the lower body. Cutting the power to the Microcontroler. Tapping power for the Arduino. Tapping the lines into the motor control circuit.

Taping into the encoders. Getting the morors and sensors connected to the arduino. Connecting a wii nunchuck into the system. The Arduino Code. Getting the fuel to the head. Building an ignition system. Remote fuel trigger. Follow up. Tweet-a-watt - How to make a twittering power meter Make it! Make the Receiver. Solder the Transmitter - parts list. Transmitter Schematic.

Assemble and create the transmitter - 1. Assemble and create the transmitter - 2. Assemble and create the transmitter - 3. Assemble and create the transmitter - 4. Assemble and create the transmitter - 5. Design - overview.

Design - listen. Design - store. Design - graph. Bubblesteen Bubble Machine. Things you will need. Dealing with the micro controller. Putting it together. Step 6: Additional photos. Setting up. The Motor Driver. The Wheels. The Frame part A. The Frame part B. Mounting the motors. Step 7: Mounting the mower deck. Select and Install the batteries. Mount the electronics. The Code. More Videos.

Parts and Materials. Design and Code Explanation. Mounting the Drawer Bearings Y Axis. Building the Motor Mount Y Axis. Installing the Rack Gears Y Axis. Wiring and Mounting the Motor Y Axis. Mounting the Crossbars X Axis. Attaching the Magnet to the Servo X Axis. Wiring and Mounting the Motor X Axis. Wiring the Sensors. Place the Magnets.

Salvaging parts from the donor wheelchair. Build the frame and mount the wheels and motors. A Makers Wedding - Photo booth. Step 1: Software and Trigger Button. Booth Design. Cut The Panels. Bottom Panel - Tripod Mount. Box Construction.

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Adding Components. Details and Finishing - Part 1. Details and Finishing - Part 2. Author and Copyright Notices Instructable: LED Cube 8x8x8 Author: Power Laces- the Auto lacing shoe Author: Plantduino Greenhouse Author: RandomMatrix License: None All Rights Reserved c Instructable: Flamethrowing Jack-O'-Lantern Author: Syst3mX License: Grathio License: Turn signal biking jacket Author: Tree Climbing Robot Author: Technochicken License: Type Case, the making of a low-resolution display Author: Martin Bircher License: Sigh Collector Author: Bubblesteen Bubble Machine Author: A Makers Wedding - Photo booth Author: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike by-nc-sa.

Disclaimer All do-it-yourself activities involve risk, and your safety is your own responsibility, including proper use of equipment and safety gear, and determining whether you have adequate skill and experience. Some of the resources used for these projects are dangerous unless used properly and with adequate precautions, including safety gear. Some illustrative photos do not depict safety precautions or equipment, in order to show the project steps more clearly.

The projects are not intended for use by children. Many projects on Instructables are user-submitted, and appearance of a project in this format does not indicate it has been checked for safety or functionality.

Use of the instructions and suggestions is at your own risk. Instructables, Inc. It is your responsibility to make sure that your activities comply with all applicable laws.

We believe this Instructable is the most comprehensive step-by-step guide to build an 8x8x8 LED Cube ever published on the intertubes. It will teach you everything from theory of operation, how to build the cube, to the inner workings of the software. About halfway through the Instructable, you will actually have a fully functional LED cube. The remaining steps will show you how to create the software. A video is worth a thousand words.

I'll just leave it up to this video to convince you that this is the next project you will be building:. I made this LED cube together with my friend chiller. The build took about 4 days from small scale prototyping to completed cube. Then another couple of hours to debug some faulty transistors. The software is probably another days of work combined. Skills required At first glance this project might seem like an overly complex and daunting task. However, we are dealing with digital electronics here, so everything is either on or off!

I've been doing electronics for a long time, and for years i struggled with analog circuits. The analog circuits failed over half the time even if i followed instructions. One resistor or capacitor with a slightly wrong value, and the circuit doesn't work.

About 4 years ago, I decided to give microcontrollers a try. This completely changed my relationship with electronics. I went from only being able to build simple analog circuits, to being able to build almost anything!

A digital circuit doesn't care if a resistor is 1k ohm or 2k ohm, as long as it can distinguish high from low. And believe me, this makes it A LOT easier to do electronics!

With that said, there are still some things you should know before venturing out and building this rather large project. You should have an understanding of: Basic electronics. We would recommend against building this as your very first electronics project. But please read the Instructable. You'll still learn a lot! How to solder. How to use a multimeter etc. Writing code in C optional. We provide a fully functional program, ready to go You should also have patience and a generous amount of free time.

Step 2: Component list Here is what you need to make a LED cube: The type with copper "eyes", see image.

You choose color and size. See attached price list. When saving, if you see. Ordering components We see a lot of people asking for part numbers for DigiKey, Mouser or other big electronics stores.

When you're working with hobby electronics, you don't necessarily need the most expensive components with the best quality. Most of the time, it is more important to actually have the component value at hand when you need it. We are big fans of buying really cheap component lots on eBay. You can get assortments of resistor, capacitors, transistors and everything in between.

If you buy these types of assortments, you will almost always have the parts you need in your part collection. For 17 USD you can get resistors of 50 different values. Great value, and very convenient. Try doing som eBay searches and buy some components for future projects!

Another one of our favorite stores is Futurlec http: They have everything you need. The thing they don't have is different versions of that thing that you need, so browsing their inventory is a lot less confusing than buying from those bigger companies. Image Notes 1. But beware! The descriptions aren't always that great.

We ordered diffused leds and got clear ones: Step 4: Think of it as many transparent low resolution displays. In normal displays it is normal to try to stack the pixels as close as possible in order to make it look better, but in a cube one must be able to see trough it, and more spacing between the pixels actually it's voxels since it is in 3d is needed.

The spacing is a trade-off between how easy the layers behind it is seen, and voxel fidelity. This is the reason LED cubes are only made in low resolution. A LED cube does not have to be symetrical, it is possible to make a 7x8x9, or even oddly shaped ones. Step 5: You would need a micro controller with IO ports, and run wires through the cube. If you flash a led really fast, the image will stay on your retina for a little while after the led turns off.

By flashing each layer of the cube one after another really really fast, it gives the illusion of a 3d image, when int fact you are looking at a series of 2d images stacked ontop oneanother. This is also called multiplexing. In the video, the process is slowed down enough for you to see it, then it runs faster and faster until the refresh rate is fast enough for the camera to catch the POV effect.

Do this fast enough, and your human eyes won't know the difference! Robots may be able to see past the illusion, though. The anatomy of a LED cube We are going to be talking about anodes, cathodes, columns and layers, so lets take a moment to get familiar with the anatomy of a LED cube.

An LED has two legs. One positive the anode and one negative cathode. In order to light up an LED, you have to run current from the positive to the negative leg. If i remember correctly the actual flow of electrons is the other way around. But let's stick to the flow of current which is from positive to negative for now. The LED cube is made up of columns and layers.

The cathode legs of every LED in a layer are soldered together. All the anode legs in one column are soldered together. Each of the 64 columns are connected to the controller board with a separate wire. Each column can be controlled individually. Each of the 8 layers also have a separate wire going to the controller board. Each of the layers are connected to a transistor that enables the cube to turn on and off the flow of current through each layer.

By only turning on the transistor for one layer, current from the anode columns can only flow through that layer. The transistors for the other layers are off, and the image outputted on the 64 anode wires are only shown on the selected layer. To display the next layer, simply turn off the transistor for the current layer, change the image on the 64 anode wires to the image for the next layer.

Then turn on the transistor for the next layer. Rinse and repeat very very fast. The layers will be referred to as layers, cathode layers or ground layers. The columns will be referred to as columns, anode columns or anodes. A 64x64 image is flashed first on layer 0 3. Then another image is flashed on layer 1 4. Wash rinse repeat.

One to source all the LED anode columns, and one to sink all the cathode layers. You also need 8 IO ports to drive the cathodes. Keep in mind that the number of IO ports will increase exponentially.

So will the number of LEDs. You can see a list of IO pin requirement for different cube sizes in table 1. For a small LED cube, 3x3x3 or 4x4x4, you might get away with connecting the cathode layers directly to a micro controller IO pin. For a larger cube however, the current going through this pin will be too high. See table 2 for an overview of power requirements for a LED layer of different sizes.

This table shows the current draw with all LEDs on. If you are planning to build a larger cube than 8x8x8 or running each LED at more than ish mA, remember to take into consideration that your layer transistors must be able to handle that load. Step 8: To get get the required 64 output lines needed for the LED anodes, we will create a simple multiplexer circuit. This circuit will multiplex 11 IO lines into 64 output lines. The multiplexer is built by using a component called a latch or a flip-flop.

We will call them latches from here on. This multiplexer uses an 8 bit latch IC called 74HC This chip has the following pins: The latch can hold 8 bits of information, and these 8 bits are represented on the output pins.

Consider a latch with an LED connected to output Q0. When the CP pin changes from low to high, the state of the input D0 is "latched" onto the output Q0, and this output stays in that state regardless of future changes in the status of input D0, until new data is loaded by pulling the CP pin low and high again.

The inputs D of all the latches are connected together in an 8 bit bus. Load the data of the first latch onto the bus. Load the data of the second latch onto the bus. Load the data of the third latch onto the bus. Rinse and repeat. The only problem with this setup is that we need 8 IO lines to control the CP line for each latch.

The solution is to use a 74HC This IC has 3 input lines and 8 outputs. The input lines are used to control which of the 8 output lines that will be pulled low at any time.

The rest will be high. Each out the outputs on the 74HC is connected to the CP pin on one of the latches. The following pseudo-code will load the contents of a buffer array onto the latch array: That means that the output that is active is pulled LOW.

To trigger the right latch, the 74HC needs to stay one step ahead of the counter i.

So when port B outputs 8 or in binary, the 74HC reads in binary, thus completing its cycle. The 74HC now outputs the following sequence: Step 9: IO port expansion, alternative solution There is another solution for providing more output lines. We went with the latch based multiplexer because we had 8 latches available when building the LED cube. You can also use a serial-in-parallel out shift register to get 64 output lines. This chip has two inputs may also have an output enable pin, but we will ignore this in this example.

Everything is shifted one position to the right assuming that Q0 is to the left. The state of the data input line is shifted into Q0. The way you would normally load data into a chip like this, is to take a byte and bit-shift it into the chip one bit at a time.

This uses a lot of CPU cycles. However, we have to use 8 of these chips to get our desired 64 output lines. We simply connect the data input of each shift register to each of the 8 bits on a port on the micro controller. All the clock inputs are connected together and connected to a pin on another IO port. This setup will use 9 IO lines on the micro controller.

In the previous solution, each byte in our buffer array was placed in it's own latch IC. In this setup each byte will be distributed over all 8 shift registers, with one bit in each. The following pseudo-code will transfer the contents of a 64 bit buffer array to the shift registers. For the purposes of this instructable, we will be using a latch based multiplexer for IO port expansion. Feel free to use this solution instead if you understand how they both work.

With this setup, the contents of the buffer will be "rotated" 90 degrees compared to the latch based multiplexer. Wire up your cube accordingly, or simply just turn it 90 degrees to compensate ;. Power supply considerations This step is easy to overlook, as LEDs themselves don't draw that much current. But remember that this circuit will draw 64 times the mA of your LEDs if they are all on.

To calculate the current draw of your LEDs, connect a led to a 5V power supply with the resistor you intend to use, and measure the current in mA. Multiply this number by 64, and you have the power requirements for the cube itself.

Our first attempt at a power supply was to use a step-down voltage regulator, LM, with a 12V wall wart. At over mA and 12V input, this chip became extremely hot, and wasn't able to supply the desired current. We later removed this chip, and soldered a wire from the input to the output pin where the chip used to be.

We now use a regulated computer power supply to get a stable high current 5V supply. About 15 bucks will get you a nice PSU. This is what we have been using to power the LED cube. PC power supplies are nice, because they have regulated 12V and 5V rails with high Ampere ratings. If you want to use an ATX power supply, you have to connect the green wire on the motherboard connector to ground black.

This will power it up. External hard drive enclosures are especially nice to use as power supplies. They already have a convenient enclosure.

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The only thing you have to do is to add external power terminals. Power supplies have a lot of wires, but the easiest place to get the power you need is through a molex connector.

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That is the kind of plug you find on hard drives before the age of S-ATA. We have 12V output, 5V output with an ampere meter and 5V output without an ampere meter. We use the second 5V output to power an 80mm PC fan to suck or blow fumes away when we solder.

We won't get into any more details of how to make a power supply here.

I'm sure you can find another instructable on how to do that. Old SCSI disk 2. Inside here is a small powersupply that used to supply the SCSI hard drive that was inside. Therefore we strongly recommend using diffused LEDs.

A diffused LED will be more or less equally bright from all sides. Clear LEDs also create another problem. If your cube is made up of clear LEDs. This creates some unwanted ghosting effects. Shipping them back to China to receive a replacement would have taken too much time, so we decided to used the clear LEDs instead. It works fine, but the cube is a lot brighter when viewed from the top as opposed to the sides.

Maybe we should have taken the hint ; Defusing is something you do to a bomb when you want to prevent it from blowing up, hehe. We went with 3mm LEDs because we wanted the cube to be as "transparent" as possible.

Our recommendation is to use 3mm diffused LEDs. But keep in mind that the quality of the product may be reflected in it's price. With 3mm round LEDs, all you need is a 3mm drill bit.

The cube design in this instructable uses the legs of the LEDs themselves as the skeleton for the cube.

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Choose your resistors There are three things to consider when choosing the value of your resistors, the LEDs, the 74HC that drive the LEDs, and the transistors used to switch the layers on and off. Usually, there are two ratings, one mA for continuous load, and mA for burst loads.

You have to keep within the specified maximum mA rating for the output pins. If you look in the data sheet, You will find this line: This gives you 6. If your LEDs draw 20mA each, that would mean that you have to switch on and off 1.

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The only transistors we had available had a maximum rating of mA. We ended up using resistors of ohms. While you are waiting for your LED cube parts to arrive in the mail, you can build the guy in the picture below: Choose the size of your cube We wanted to make the LED cube using as few components as possible. We had seen some people using metal rods for their designs, but we didn't have any metal rods.

Many of the metal rod designs also looked a little crooked. We figured that the easiest way to build a led cube would be to bend the legs of the LEDs so that the legs become the scaffolding that holds the LEDs in place. By choosing a LED spacing of 25mm, there would be a 1mm overlap for soldering.

Seeing all the way through to the furthest layer wouldn't be a problem. We could have made the cube smaller, but then we would have to cut every single leg, and visibility into the cube would be compromised. Our recommendation is to use the maximum spacing that your LED can allow. Add 1mm margin for soldering. How to make straight wire In order to make a nice looking LED Cube, you need some straight steel wire. The only wire we had was on spools, so it had to be straightened.

Our first attempt at this failed horribly. We tried to bend it into a straight wire, but no matter how much we bent, it just wasn't straight enough. Then we remembered an episode of "How it's made" from the Discovery Channel.

The episode was about how they make steel wire. They start out with a spool of really thick wire, then they pull it through smaller and smaller holes. We remembered that the wire was totally straight and symmetrical after being pulled like that. So we figured we should give pulling a try, and it worked! Here is how you do it.

Remove the insulation, if any. Get a firm grip of each end of the wire with two pairs of pliers Pull hard! You will feel the wire stretch a little bit. You only need to stretch it a couple of millimeters to make it nice and straight.

If you have a vice, you can secure one end in the vice and use one pair of pliers. This would probably be a lot easier, but we don't own a vice.

Practice in small scale Whenever Myth Busters are testing a complex myth, they start by some small scale experiments. We recommend that you do the same thing. Before we built the 8x8x8 LED cube, we started by making a smaller version of it, 4x4x4. By making the 4x4x4 version first, you can perfect your cube soldering technique before starting on the big one. Check out our 4x4x4 LED cube instructable for instructions on building a smaller "prototype".

You don't want it to be to tight, as that would make it difficult to remove the soldered layer from the jig without bending it. If the holes are too big, some of the LEDs might come out crooked. These indentions will prevent the drill from sliding sideways when you start drilling. If the hole is too snug, carefully drill it again until the LED fits snugly and can be pulled out without much resistance. A steel wire will be soldered in here in every layer to give the cube some extra stiffening.

If you make a small indentation before drilling, the drill won't slide sideways. All done. We used this LED to test all the holes. Everything but the kitchen sink? We sort of used the kitchen sink to hold the jig in place ;. This means that you have to take some precautions in order to avoid broken LEDs. Soldering iron hygiene First of all, you need to keep your soldering iron nice and clean. That means wiping it on the sponge every time you use it.

The tip of your soldering iron should be clean and shiny. Whenever the you see the tip becoming dirty with flux or oxidizing, that means loosing it's shinyness, you should clean it. Even if you are in the middle of soldering. Having a clean soldering tip makes it A LOT easier to transfer heat to the soldering target. Soldering speed When soldering so close to the LED body, you need to get in and out quickly. Wipe your iron clean. Apply a tiny amount of solder to the tip.

Touch the part you want to solder with the side of your iron where you just put a little solder. Let the target heat up for 0. You only need to apply a little bit. Only the solder that is touching the metal of both wires will make a difference. A big blob of solder will not make the solder joint any stronger. Remove the soldering iron immediately after applying the solder. Mistakes and cool down If you make a mistake, for example if the wires move before the solder hardens or you don't apply enough solder.

Do not try again right away. At this point the LED is already very hot, and applying more heat with the soldering iron will only make it hotter. Continue with the next LED and let it cool down for a minute, or blow on it to remove some heat. Solder We recommend using a thin solder for soldering the LEDs. This gives you a lot more control, and enable you to make nice looking solder joints without large blobs of solder. We used a 0. Don't use solder without flux.

If your solder is very old and the flux isn't cleaning the target properly, get newer solder. We haven't experienced this, but we have heard that it can happen. Are we paranoid? We also tested every LED after we finished soldering a layer. Some of the LEDs didn't work after being soldered in place. We considered these things before making a single solder joint.

Even with careful soldering, some LEDs were damaged. The last thing you want is a broken LED near the center of the cube when it is finished. The first and second layer from the outside can be fixed afterwards, but any further in than that, and you'll need endoscopic surgical tools ;.

We tested some of the LED before we started soldering, and randomly stumbled on a LED that was a lot dimmer than the rest. So we decided to test every LED before using it.

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We found a couple of dead LEDs and some that were dimmer than the rest. This might be less of a problem if you are using LEDs that are more expensive, but we found it worth while to test our LEDs. Get out your breadboard, connect a power supply and a resistor, then pop the LEDs in one at a time.

You might also want to have another LED with its own resistor permanently on the breadboard while testing. This makes it easier to spot differences in brightness. Multimeter connected in series to measure mA. At the top of each layer each LED is rotated 90 degrees clockwise, so that the leg connects with the top LED of the next column. On the column to the right this leg will stick out of the side of the layer.

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We leave this in place and use it to connect ground when testing all the LEDs in a later step. Make sure the legs are bent in the same direction on all the LEDs. Looking at the LED sitting in a hole in the template with the notch to the right, we bent the leg upwards. Then place the one to the left, positioning it so that it's cathode leg is touching the cathode leg of the previous LED. Rinse and repeat until you reach the left LED.

Solder all the joints. That way your hand can rest on the wooden template when you solder. You will need a steady hand when soldering freehand like this. Start by placing the LED second from the top, aligning it so it's leg touches the solder joint from the previous step. Repeat until you reach the bottom. At this point the whole thing is very flimsy, and you will need to add some support. We used one bracing near the bottom and one near the middle.

Take a straight peace of wire, roughly align it where you want it and solder one end to the layer. Fine tune the alignment and solder the other end in place. Now, make solder joints to the remaining 6 columns. Do this for both braces. Just mentioning here so you don't remove the layer just yet. Depending on the size of your holes, some LEDs might have more resistance when you try to pull it out.

Simply grabbing both ends of the layer and pulling would probably break the whole thing if a couple of the LEDs are stuck. Start by lifting every single LED a couple of millimeters. Just enough to feel that there isn't any resistance.

When all the LEDs are freed from their holes, try lifting it carefully. If it is still stuck, stop and pull the stuck LEDs out. Repeat 8 times! Note on images: If you are having trouble seeing the detail in any of our pictures, you can views the full resolution by clicking on the little i icon in the top left corner of every image.

All our close up pictures are taken with a mini tripod and should have excellent macro focus. On the image page, choose the original size from the "Available sizes" menu on the left hand side. Start with this row 2. Then do this column 3. And then the rest.. Don't remove the leg that sticks out to the side. It is convenient to connect ground to it when testing the LEDs.

We marked off where we wanted to have the midway bracing, so we didn't accidentally put it in different locations in each layer: We strongly recommend that you test all LEDs before proceeding. Connect ground to the tab you left sticking out at the upper right corner. Connect a wire to 5V through a resistor.

Take the wire and tap it against all 64 anode legs that are sticking up from your template. If a LED doesn't flash when you tap it, that means that something is wrong. If everything checks out, pull the layer from the cube and start soldering the next one. Ground connected to the layer 2.

If you look at the LEDs in your template from the side, they are probably bent in some direction.

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You want all the legs to point straight up, at a 90 degree angle from the template. While looking at the template from the side, straighten all the legs. Then rotate the template 90 degrees, to view it from the other side, then do the same process. You now have a perfect layer that is ready to be removed from the template. This isn't going to be a very nice LED cube! We use a 4x4x4 cube here to demonstrate. To make a solder joint, we have to bend the anode leg so that it touches the anode leg on the LED below.

Make a bend in the anode leg towards the cathode leg approximately 3mm from the end of the leg. This is enough for the leg to bend around the LED below and make contact with it's anode leg.

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