in Spanish, PDF file (Sociedad Argentina de Derecho Canónico); in Swedish, PDF file · in Vietnamese, many small HTML files. and up to the promulgation of the Codex Canonum Ecclesiarum Orientalium in 2 E. Sastre Santos, Storia dei Sistemi di Diritto Canonico, Roma, Detta Commissione è durata fino all'erezione della Pontificia Commissione per la revisione del Codice di Diritto Canonico, costituita da.
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Codice di Diritto Canonico: full text, concordances and frequency lists. Notes: The Canon Law Code (Codex Iuris Canonici) of the Holy See canonico Codice del diritto canonico, Complete document (pdf) [ KB]. in French, many small HTML files, Latin and French (Institut Catholique de Paris); in Italian, Summary, by Card. Vincenza La Puma, five PDF files (Roma Tre ).
It is through the Code of Canon Law that the Church legally organizes and governs her permanent and temporal structures at the service of the People of God in the human society. Presidente S. Thomas Aquinas The medieval traditions on natural law were transmitted to the modern world primarily through the works of Christian philosophers and theologians, especially St. Edizioni Dehoniane, Bologna, , pp. In fact, conscience for St.
This inevitably has a negative impact on the correct understanding of natural law seu natural moral law. In order to understand the crisis and the present issues concerning natural law, it is necessary to go over the evolution of its concept2; if not a comprehensive evaluation, at least a review of its most salient points handed to us by works and scholarly writings from generations of great thinkers and jurists. Sanvito, Milano, , pp. Vita e Pensiero, Milano, , pp.
They conceived these norms as something that have been established by and in the nature itself that human reason could perceive. Heraclitus c.
The idea that the universe is in constant change7 and that there is an underlying order or reason for such a change challenged the philosopher to seek explanation. The true wisdom for Heraclitus implies a proper understanding on how nature works and how all things are governed.
This natural wisdom, from Heraclitus to Sofocles10, presents the concept of human law that is radically dependent on divine law. Aristotle in his Nicomachean Ethics introduced the concept of natural law, i. Both of them encompass the two dimensions: Dehoniane, Bologna, , p. Stoicism provided the most complete classical formulation of natural law. The Stoics argued that the universe is governed by reason or rational principle; they further asserted that all men had reason within them and could therefore know and obey its command.
However, since human beings have the faculty of choice, i. Here is an excerpt of the Roman orator: And there will not be different laws at Rome and at Athens, or different laws now and in the future, but one eternal and unchangeable law will be valid for all nations and for all times, and there will be one master and one ruler, that is, God, over us all, for He is the author of this law, its promulgator, and its enforcing judge. Whoever is disobedient is fleeing from himself and denying his human nature, and by reason of this very fact he will suffer the worst penalties, even if he escapes what is commonly considered punishment.
In this context, natural law explicates the basis of our moral choice and enforces our ability to acquire sound reason. Consequently, every man in order to achieve his self-realization has to be faithful to his own rational nature and to conform himself to the principles set by the very same law inscribed in his being.
Handed down through generations, this law was considered by the Romans to be a legal tradition that evolved 13 Cf. Keyes , Harvard University, Cambridge, , p. Regnery Gateway, Washington D. Those eternal laws are peculiar to man, for only man, on earth, is a rational being.
The test of validity for the state's laws is their conformity to reason Learned men know that Law is the highest reason, implanted in Nature, which commands what ought to be done and forbids the opposite.
This reason, when firmly fixed and fully developed in the human mind, is Law. And so they believe that Law is intelligence, whose natural function it is to command right conduct and forbid wrongdoing. Now if this is correct, […] then the origin of Justice is to be found in Law; for Law is a natural force; it is the mind and reason of the intelligent man, the standard by which Justice and Injustice are measured. Law, then, at base is knowledge of the ethical norms for the human being.
This customary law which was an integral part of the system called ius civile was applied only to the citizens of the city of Rome cives romani. The centuries-old customary law was then written down for the first time by a commission of ten consuls or the so-called Decemvirate in BC. The Twelve Tables became not only the foundation of Roman law but also the nucleus of the constitution of the Roman Republic in the succeeding period of the history of the city.
The Code did not rewrite the existing law or create a new one; rather, it simply transcribed the customary law in force ius to a written form lex. The legal compilation did not transform all existing law to written form.
Instead, it was focused on specific questions that might lead to dispute or disagreement and it addressed the technical aspects of legal procedure so that every citizen might have clear guidelines on the proper ways of pursuing legal justice. The passage from the republican to the imperial Rome entailed an enormous and increasing responsibility in the governance. Moreover, the diversity of population of the empire inevitably demanded a more systematic administration of justice.
Legal questions and disputes inevitably arose due to growing economic and commercial interactions not only among cives romani but especially with the strangers peregrini living in or travelling through its territories and to whom the ius civile could not be applied.
The ius gentium, or law of nations, was based upon the general principles and reasoning that civilized societies and men were understood to live by and observe. Since the ius gentium contained legal provisions based on natural reason naturalis ratio and were generally recognized by all peoples to be rooted in natural human relationship based on natural and social justice; it became known also as ius naturale.
It was the Roman jurist Gaius who made the bipartition of law in ius civile and ius gentium and considered the latter as ius naturale. It is a form of ratio naturalis that ought to be obeyed because it is inherent in the human rationality. The concept of ius gentium based on natural law was developed and it became a recognizable law that by itself could be imposed on all peoples; thus, erga omnes. Ius gentium and ius naturale are generally considered the same for the universality of their content.
In order to satisfy any legal demand by a non-civis romanum, a special magistrate was appointed to preside in the legal procedures involving subjects who did not have Roman citizenship. Institutiones Gaius, I, 1: While the former admitted its possibility, the latter was clear in affirming that all persons are born free and equal. Justinian recognized the autonomy of ius naturale. However, it should be noted that there were no contradictions in the tripartite system: The mystical concept of law corresponds with the pursuit of the virtue of justice.
The formation of law that will govern the religious and the political life of peoples should take into consideration three essential principles. The first principle is the divine will as the basis of written and non-written law; the human will that complies to the precept of law through natural reason is the second principle, and the nature of things on which every law should be founded is the third element.
These principles were assimilated in the legal doctrines and practical life of the Romans. Caecina oratio, XX, Emperor Justinian I on December 15, AD commissioned a college of jurists presided over by the eminent jurist Tribonian to arrange systematically and orderly the more than 1, years of legal development of Roman law.
The product was more comprehensive, systematic, and thorough than any previous work of that nature, surpassing in excellence even the Theodosian Code.
The four parts of the compilation are the Institutes Institutiones , an introductory textbook, published on November 21, AD for the study of law in substitution to the Institutiones of Gaius; the Digest Digesta seu Pandectae published on December 16, AD is so far the most important collection of the authoritative dictum of the most famous classical jurists viz. In the 11th century, with the revival of interest in Roman law in the School of Bologna, the Corpus Juris Civilis was exhaustively studied and commented beginning with Irnerius.
Jurists and scholars trained in the scuola bolognese played a leading role in the creation of national legal systems throughout Europe, and the Corpus Juris Civilis thus became the ultimate model and inspiration for the legal system of virtually every continental European nation. See also, H.
University Press, Cambridge, , pp; ID. Clarendon Press, Oxford, , pp; A. Cases and Materials for the Comparative Study of Law. Prentice Hall Inc. The provisions of the Corpus Juris Civilis influenced in a great part the Canon Law of the Church since it was said that ecclesia vivit lege romana — the church lives under Roman law, cf. Lex Ripuaria, tit. It is a vast collection of harmonious correlation of all the sources and the materials of legislative production of the Roman law.
The term ius naturale is mentioned twenty times in Digesta and four times in the Institutiones of Gaius. The Roman jurists of the classical period considered ius naturale as a body of law known to all peoples and founded on ratio naturalis.
He defined ius naturale as a composite of the precepts of cohabitation living together dictated by the nature to all living beings. He cited marriage and procreation of children as examples of natural rights arising from natural law. While classical jurists underlined that the norms of natural law were derived from the naturalis ratio, the post-classical jurists upheld a transcendental vision, i.
In fact, the concept of natural law in the Institutiones shifted the source of natural law from natural inclination of creatures to the divine decree of the Creator; thus, the norms of natural law were established by divine providence and would always remain firm and immutable. Studi in memoria di P. Koschaker, II, Milano , pp. Albertario, II, Milano , pp. The jurists of the classical and post-classical periods of Roman law commonly believed that human persons as rational and social beings should be considered as the supreme principle of nature on which every positive law should be founded.
The ratio that was inherent to every rational being constituted the natural light29 through which one would comprehend the nature of things and of human beings.
Therefore, the essence of ius naturale should be sought by investigating not only the nature of the created things but most importantly the very nature of man. The ius naturale, a non-written law, known in ancient jurisprudence for its humanity and rationality served as the basis for the creation of the Roman system of law and for the establishment of its legal, social and political institutions.
In its development and evolution, the fundamentals of ius vetum and ius novum correspond essentially to the principles of natural law, viz. The rules dictated by natural reason are always the same, but the form of their expression changes from time to time and from one place to another and it usually depends on political, cultural and religious factors.
From the Middle Ages down to the rise of a new School of Natural Law after the 15th century, there was a conviction that natural law contained and included the whole of Ius Romanum. This is because the Roman Law as a whole is considered as supremely reasonable and universally diffused making such legal system and its institutions an embodiment of the natural law itself.
It was considered as a written natural law because its provisions were in conformity with the norms of natural justice cf. Eine wissenschaftliche Darlegung der sittlichen, einschliesslich der rechtlichen Ordnung, Herder, Freiburg, , vol. II, p. Ignatius, San Francisco, , pp. Giappichelli, Torino, , p.
The Church lived with the Roman law and through the ius humanum ecclesiasticum, she adopted, modified and perfected its content with the gospel of humanity and universality. In fact, this is confirmed by the famous maxim: The first Christian philosopher to write on natural law was Isidore of Sevile , the last of the ancient Christian philosophers. In his Etymologiae or Origines as it is sometimes called, the last of the great Latin Fathers combined the Hellenistic and Roman traditions defining ius naturale as the law that was observed in the past, is observed in the present and the same law that will be observed in the future by all peoples.
The great Christian thinker gives some examples of objective rights deriving from the law of nature: Gratian began his treatise by discussing the different kinds of law that governed and directed the behavior of men. He based the whole structure of jurisprudence on an initial distinction between ius naturale and customary law. This led natural law to the forefront of all the possible arguments concerning the positive law.
Natural law is that which is contained in the Law and the Gospel by which one is commanded to do unto another what he wants 31 Decretum Gratiani D. Herder, Friburg, , pp. London, , pp. Mursia, Roma, , pp, read especially There are many reasons for such incongruity.
Second, the natural law conceived by Isidore was not a precept taken from the Bible but a product of human instinct. As a result, interpreters on different fields of legal sciences like the civilista, canonista and decretista found several concepts of natural law with numerous contradictions using the same source. Those concepts differ from one perspective to another. An honest analysis of the work of Gratian will surely help to unveil the real concept of natural law according to the father of the science of canon law.
He considered natural law as pre- dating the Mosaic Law and he emphasized its connection with the naturalis ratio. I, dictum ante C. Ius naturale est, quod in lege et Evagelio continetur: Others have said that natural ius is an extrapredicamental something including both the mode of existing as essence and as being. He considered natural law, in the widest sense, as synonymous to the harmony of creation because it is the source and principle of all virtues.
He made an important distinction on the precepts of natural law into primary that is immutable and secondary that is variable. But generally, the precepts of the natural law are unchangeable because according to Alexander of Hales c. He considered absurd the concept of natural law common to all animate and inanimate creatures.
He pointed out that natural law and natural justice belong to the specific nature of man, viz. Thus, ius naturale in its proper sense pertains to man alone. In all oh his arguments, what usually prevailed was the affirmation that natural law was referred formally to the rational nature of man. Thomas Aquinas The medieval traditions on natural law were transmitted to the modern world primarily through the works of Christian philosophers and theologians, especially St.
Thomas Aquinas The Angelic Doctor treated natural law expansively in his Summa Theologica in Book One, part two, questions 91 to 95, especially Thomas of Aquinas began his reflection on natural law having in mind the Christian concept of man, created by God in His image and likeness and is a part of the created world wherein he pursues a goal proper to his nature in harmony with the entire universe. In order to realize the end for which man is created, God is the external principle that helps him achieve what is good; he is guided with instructions and assisted by grace.
The creatures participate in the eternal law according to their nature. The rational beings partake of the law through their rationality and freedom. In abiding to the precepts of moral law, the reason ratio knows what is convenient to the nature of rational being and is led to the achievement of its end. In fact, St. Thomas, explains that: Summa fratris Alexandri, lib.
III, pars 2, Inquis. Thomas, lex naturalis is the light of the intelligence infused by God, through which man can know what he ought to do and what he must avoid.
As a consequence, man becomes the principle of his own acts inasmuch as he possesses the capacity to define the moral principles of his behavior. In this context, law is the rule and right is its objective content. Therefore, what is due to man according to his nature as living, corporeal, rational and social being is according to justice.
Essentially, natural law is universal, knowable and immutable. It is knowable because it is naturally known by man through his sole reason; thus it cannot be ignored by any creature considered as rational being. It is immutable because its primary precepts cannot be changed by any human authority.
However, in spite of its universality, knowability and immutability, not only the concept of natural law as conceived by man may vary from time to time and from one place to another but the application of its general principles may also change depending on the influence of history, religions, cultures, economy and politics.
Reason lost its capacity of moral evaluation and had become a simple catalogue of the obviously known obligatory precepts. As a categorical imperative, there was a pressure to respect and observe the obligation for its own sake. It was a blind rationalism that became the foundation of moral law, almost compatible with voluntarism.
The precept as imperative command on the part of divine legislator became an absolute principle of morality. The essential relationship God-man was reduced to a pure revelation and imposition on the part of God. The strength of moral action lies no longer on the capacity of man to evaluate his action as good or evil but the obligation to execute with blind obedience whatever is 46 S.
PUF, Paris, vol. The potentia Dei absoluta of Ockham became the supreme reason of the State and of legal positivism wherein the only source of law is the sovereign will of the legislator. The problem of emphasizing the role of human rational nature separated from Christian Revelation is to construct a natural moral law that is metaphysically well founded but theologically weak.
The consequence of the systematic separation of philosophy and theology is the infringement of the unity between the human and divine fields of knowledge. There is a need to repair the fracture caused by the continuous disintegration between philosophy and theology. Unfortunately, the reflection on the succeeding periods worsened the gap and created systems of thought at the expense of the real concept of natural moral law.
The 17th century Dutch jurist Hugo Grotius believed that humans by nature were not only reasonable but social as well. The founder of the new School of Natural Law affirmed the existence of the natural law predictable by human reason and on which every positive law was grounded. The removal God and theology in the field of law eventually prepared the formation of modern States in the whole of Europe free from any religious influence and interference.
Grotius elaborated his war cry: He was convinced that human reason was sufficient alone and was capable of distinguishing good and evil without any help from divine revelation; rather, any reference to such revelation as the cause of the conflict among the various Christian denominations should be avoided. This does not necessarily mean that Grotius arrived at the explicit denial of the existence of the objective nature of man; nevertheless, he diminished its essence through a reductive concept of reason.
His concept of reason is grounded on some of the evident principles inherent to man and on some notions deducted through abstract reasoning. Historical notes from the Church of the Brethren network, in http: This theory of rationalist iusnaturalism55 iusnaturalismus has become the radical affirmation of innate and inalienable rights of men.
There is an abrupt change of emphasis, i. This led to the absolutization of the subjective rights of individuals. Now there is no value capable of sustaining man, and there are no inviolable norms.
All that counts is man's ego and the present moment In this doctrine, the notions of state of nature and social contract are of primary importance. This passage could take place through a pact that signified the transfer of the natural rights of each individual to the will of the Sovereign as the sole custodian of force.
Locke delineated a model of civil convivenza that emphasized, on one side, the contractual hypothesis of Hobbes and, on the other side, eliminated some essential human rights by designating the State as the sole custodian of all the natural rights of its citizens. In the 18th century, the theory of iusnaturalism re-elaborated by Jean- Jacques Rousseau and by Immanuel Kant — , was strongly criticized by George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel — Hegel denied the possibility of founding the State on a pact stipulated by individuals.
After Hegel, the elaboration of positive law and natural law that excluded their historical development became an arduous task. The distinction was challenged by the legal positivism of Hans Kelsen — who excluded the possibility of deriving from nature or reason the substantial norms of the society.
However, insofar as they are beyond positive law and nature; reason may serve as a model for the enactment of norms governing the State. In the 19th century a critical spirit molded in the School of Natural and Historical Law of the 16th century continued to dominate discussions on natural law. The existence of a natural law was generally regarded as unprovable, and it was largely replaced in legal 55 There are different types of iusnaturalism iusnaturalismus: The former asserts that moral values must be discovered by solely human reason while the latter argues that moral values and rights must be discovered by human reason through the light of divine revelation.
Il problema della secolarizzazione nel pensiero giuridico di Ugo Grozio. Il problema della secolarizzazione nel pensiero giuridico di Jean Domat.
Il problema della secolarizzazione nel pensiero giuridico di Samuel Pufendorf. For Bentham consequences alone have their importance. Actions are to be judged strictly on the basis of how their outcome affects the general utility. The elaboration of various systems of thought widened the destructive gap between the classical juridic tradition and the modern theories of natural law depriving it of any metaphysical foundation.
Human nature was then identified with reason itself capable of knowing and willing everything. The result is the antagonism between rationalism and positivism; universalism and particularism; individualism and nationalism. Thus, the affirmation of the supremacy of nation has resulted to a revolt against the nature itself. Any interpretation of natura without considering its constitutive principle which by itself is absolute tends to be destructive to the nature itself.
Moreover, it can be an instrument in launching a fruitful dialogue with the post-modern cultural trends. Barker, Lawbook Exchange Ltd. Lateranensis, Roma, , 54pp; J. Namur-Louvain, , pp; S. PUL, Roma, , pp.
The metaphysical concept of natural law discerned by reason in the light of Christian revelation is bound to penetrate and gather consensus. On the other side, the additional input on Revelation will gather together people with common faith in God as Creator to start the discussion on natural law putting the centrality of the person of Jesus Christ and the concreteness of the human person as realities that no Christian of good faith will dare to deny.
The damaging results of this cultural crisis are the worse threats to security of man as individual and as member of human society, the increasing poverty not only in material but in cultural aspects as well, the dangers of genetic engineering and the systematic moral decadence.
The refusal to recognize the existence of God and the objectivity of the Revealed Truth lead to consider morality as a relative concept.
Ratzinger con il Prof. PUL, Roma, , p. Fides et ratio, September 14, , n. General Sessions, pp. Written Contributions, pp. Cognizant of the threatening serious problems of the nihilistic secularism that pervades Europe and the Western World, Ratzinger proposes a solution that has nothing to do with politics but with a spiritual renewal based on the powerful example in history by St.
Benedict and the amazing cultural impact that the Benedictine Order had on a similarly declining Europe in the Middle Ages. The German Cardinal who succeeded to the throne of Peter is inviting them to confront the present moral problems besetting man by accepting the hypothesis of the existence of God.
He appeals to the non-believers as rational thinker who would like to restore life to the idea that natural law, as accepted by any responsible individual capable of acknowledging it, is as valid precept without the necessity of imposition from an external authority.
Again, the Prelate does not demand non-believers to embrace the Catholic faith nor to practice Christian morality but he invites them to re-examine their moral convictions under the possibility of the existence of a supreme-divine being. Openness therefore!
This is essential to the correct understanding of natural moral law. I Cor Gaudium et spes It will enjoy and exact, supple and faithful harmony with the action of grace in the human person and will continue to provide a basis for mutual understanding and collaboration with those who do not share the same faith.
Meeting with the European university, in AAS 99 p. Christianity must not be relegated to the world of myth and emotion, but respected for its claim to shed light on the truth about man, to be able to transform men and women spiritually, and thus to enable them to carry out their r vocation in history.
In fact, the logical consequences deriving from a correct understanding of the concept of natural law will not simply be a concern of the speculative discipline but will inevitably provoke a general judgement on ethics, on social institutions, on the essence of man in whatever societal relationship he entered into. In this context, law becomes a social phenomenon that involves man in every aspect of the reality of his existence as rational, spiritual, human and social being.
The two concepts of iustum and iussum are complimentary terms because many things are commanded or prohibited inasmuch as they are good and evil. However, there are times wherein a morally indifferent matter may be licit or illicit just for the fact that it is commanded or prohibited. Law, in its very essence, is that which is intrinsically good ius quia iustum and it is intrinsically good that which is commanded by God iustum quia iussum.
Law may be identified with the concept of justice; if it is a clear expression of what is objectively just; while it may be identified with legitimacy or licitness if likewise it is a clear expression of what is objectively licit.
Law can be examined in various perspectives. Insofar as the object of justice, law is mandatory and its enforcement is not entrusted to individual but to the legitimately constituted public authority. Law qua talis governs the interpersonal relationships and, therefore, it has essentially a horizontal dimension; while ethics, insofar as it governs relationships between man and his Creator, has essentially a vertical dimension. Law consists mainly but not exclusively of norms.
The norms are none other than regulations which establish that a certain type of action is mandatory, prohibited or permitted in specific circumstances. There is an essential connection between law and morals. Thus, if a moral precept is not enacted as legal norm, it cannot be enforced as law. The concept of law includes all the rights and duties which are proper to man. Man as person insofar as the center of rights and attributions realizes himself as social being in a legal relationship 71 Cf.
Idea Stampa, Roma, vol. Rights and duties can be defined according to their objectivity, subjectivity and of formal causality. Law is objective in the sense that it governs with norms a concrete reality. Thus, law objectively exists if actions on specific circumstances regarding the object of the norm are obligatory, prohibited or permissible. The objectivity of the law assures an entitlement of objective rights and duties.
Hence, the first conceptual truth about rights and duties is that they are entitlements which must possess some kind of objectivity; their objectivity is the objectivity of an enacted law or its promulgation. The second conceptual truth about the objectivity of right and duty is that their entitlement or acknowledgment must be founded on the objective reality of their bearers.
Therefore, if man is a holder of objective rights and duties, his claim must be founded on the reality of his being a human person. Any human being natura sua possesses all the constitutive elements of concrete rights and duties.
The equality of rights and duties, common to all men, insomuch as it complies with the demand of justice rooted in the nature of man, is safeguarded on the basis of specific principles of justice which in turn are grounded in the natural order. The legal relationship, which is established among subjects who are by nature distinct from one another but equal in dignity, is governed by the principle of commutative justice.
In this kind of relationship, rights and duties are exercised among individuals, i. While the legal relationship which is established by individual with the society is governed by the principle of legal justice; the legal relationship which is established by the society towards individual is governed by the principle of distributive justice. I, libro I, c.
III, a, I, n. Pensatore moderno, a cura di M. Dizionario giuridico romano, Edizioni Giuridiche Simone, Napoli, , p. This faculty is considered by many jurists as the subjective right. Consequently, this faculty may legally demand a fulfillment of a duty on the part of others who are bound to respect in compliance with the law that enacted it. The norm protecting the right and duties of an individual is considered to be a command of justice regula iusti.
In reference to the formal causality of right, natural law is participation to the eternal law of God88; and in an absolute way, it lays down the rights and duties which are proper to human person as a social being. Civil positive law sets down through a public act, usually in writing, the rights and duties of an individual who is a member of a civil society civil order.
Ordinari locali esercitano il potere ordinario di gestione e sono ordinari in Chiese particolari. In definitiva, tutti i vescovi della Chiesa sono uguali, indipendentemente da ogni titolo che possono far valere patriarca , vescovo metropolita , arcivescovo , ecc.
Questo modello di governance risale ai primi secoli del cristianesimo, come testimoniano gli scritti di Ignazio di Antiochia ca.
Il vescovo in ciascuna Chiesa presiede al posto di Dio Che nessuno faccia una qualsiasi delle cose che riguardano la Chiesa senza il vescovo Il Vescovo Kallistos Ware scrive:. Ci sono molte chiese case di Dio , ma solo Una Chiesa ; molti episcopi ma solo un episcopato.
Angelo Sodano, Segretario di Stato e dalla prolusione di S. Il CIC del in prospettiva storica Mons. Ghirlanda S. De Polis C. Ramos O. Indagine e prospettive nel segno del recente magistero pontificio nel XXV anniversario della promulgazione del Codice di Diritto Canonico, organizzato dal Pontificio Consiglio per i Testi Legislativi.
Sono poi in avanzata fase di preparazione i lavori riguardanti la pubblicazione degli atti relativi al progetto della Lex Ecclesiae Fundamentalis. La rivista pubblica inoltre gli atti della Pontificia Commissione di Revisione del Codice del e della Pontificia Commissione per la Revisione del Codice di Diritto Canonico Orientale, allo scopo di facilitare il lavoro dei ricercatori sulle varie fasi di preparazione delle legislazioni della Chiesa in applicazione del Concilio Vaticano II.