Cs Datastructures Lab Manual - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. CS DATA STRUCTURES LABORATORY. data structure and c++ lab manual - Free download as Word Doc .doc /.docx), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. DATA STRUCTURES. LAB MANUAL. Subject Code: A Regulations: R13 – JNTUH. Class: II Year I Semester (CSE). Prepared By. Ms. B Padmaja.
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UNIVERSITY Jnana Sangama, Belagavi, Karnataka –. III SEMESTER / B.E.. DATA STRUCTURES WITH C. LABORATORY (15CSL38). LAB MANUAL. have a good understanding of the fundamental data structures used in computer science. be able to analyze the space and time efficiency of most algorithms. WCTM /IT/LAB MANUAL/3RD SEM/DATA STRUCTURE. 2. DATA STRUCTURE USING C LAB MANUAL. PROGRAM NO Aim: To search an element in the.
Page 20 of 47 DS Lab Programs Display 7. If the stack is empty, then print error message that stack is empty. Lifelong Learning Graduates will be equipped with the skills to pursue higher education and be expert in their profession adopting lifelong learning. Repeat the steps 2 to 10 for more values.
If low is less than high then find the mid value. Initialize h and i to low. Initialize a[h] to b[i] else a[j] to b[i]. The given data is sorted and printed using Merge Sort.
To sort the given data using Quick Sort. Initialize the variables i,j,n,r,p,q. If p is less than q then the function is called. If i is less than j, then interchange them. If I is less than pivort interchange them. The data is sorted and printed. The given data is sorted and printed using Quick Sort. To perform all stacks operation. In a switch case, in case 1 the number to be pushed is got Step 3: Else the stack is full Step 5: In case 2 the number to be deleted is got Step 6: Top is now equal to top-1 Step 7: Else the stack is empty Step 8: In case 3 if the top is less than 0 the stack is full Step 9: Else the stack is printed Step In a switch case in case 1 get the number to be added in the queue Step 3: Else the queue is full Step 4: In case 2 get the number to be deleted from the queue Step 5: Else the queue is full Step 6: If tail and head are less than 0 then in case 3 the queue is full Step 7: Else the queue is printed Step 8: Enter the operation to be performed: Initialise the variables in the main function Step 2: Get the total number of items Step 3: Get the numbers from the user Step 4: The function is called.
If there is only one element then the max and min is the same element Step 5: If there is two element then check if a[x] is less than a[y] then a[x] is min and a[y] is max Step 6: If there is more number of items mid value is found Step 7: Now max is assigned to t1 and min to t2 Step 8: If the max is less than t1 the max is t1,if min is greater than t2 the min t2 Step 9: The maximum and minimum number is found and printed.
To find the maximum profit from the items in the bag. Get the capacity of the bag. Get the profit of items in the bag.
Get the weight of each item in the bag. Assign pw[j] to t1, p[j] to t2 and w[j] to t3. Step 9: Else subtract the weight of the item from the total capacity. DisplayQ ; Page 21 of 47 DS Lab Programs 7. Display the status of SLL and count the number of nodes in it c. Exit 1. Page 22 of 47 DS Lab Programs Page 23 of 47 DS Lab Programs Insert at frontn2. Delete at Frontn3. Main Menu" ; DisplaySLL first ; Page 24 of 47 DS Lab Programs Insert at Endn2.
Delete at Endn3. Page 25 of 47 DS Lab Programs Display the status of SLL and count the number of nodesn" ; Page 26 of 47 DS Lab Programs 8. Display the status of DLL and count the number of nodes in it c. Page 27 of 47 DS Lab Programs Page 28 of 47 DS Lab Programs Page 29 of 47 DS Lab Programs DisplayDLL first ; Page 30 of 47 DS Lab Programs Delete at Frontn" ; Insert at Endn4. Delete at Endn" ; Page 31 of 47 DS Lab Programs Display the status of DLL and count the number of nodesn" ; Page 32 of 47 DS Lab Programs Page 33 of 47 DS Lab Programs 9.
Page 34 of 47 DS Lab Programs Page 35 of 47 DS Lab Programs Page 36 of 47 DS Lab Programs Page 38 of 47 DS Lab Programs Page 39 of 47 DS Lab Programs Page 40 of 47 DS Lab Programs Page 41 of 47 DS Lab Programs Delete n" ; DisplayBST root ; Page 43 of 47 DS Lab Programs Create a Graph of N cities using Adjacency Matrix. Page 44 of 47 DS Lab Programs Node 0: Bangalore, Node 1: It seeks to find ways to make data access more efficient.
When dealing with the data structure, we not only focus on one piece of data but the different set of data and how they can relate to one another in an organized manner. The key difference between both the data structure is the memory area that is being accessed. When dealing with the structure that resides the main memory of the computer system, this is referred to as storage structure. When dealing with an auxiliary structure, we refer to it as file structures.
A binary search is an algorithm that is best applied to search a list when the elements are already in order or sorted. The list is searched starting in the middle, such that if that middle value is not the target search key, it will check to see if it will continue the search on the lower half of the list or the higher half.
The split and search will then continue in the same manner. A linked list is a sequence of nodes in which each node is connected to the node following it.
This forms a chain-like link for data storage. To reference all the elements in a one -dimension array, you need to use an indexed loop, So that, the counter runs from 0 to the array size minus one.
In this manner, You can reference all the elements in sequence by using the loop counter as the array subscript. Data structures are essential in almost every aspect where data is involved. In general, algorithms that involve efficient data structure is applied in the following areas: It refers how data is accessed, stored and retrieved.
Using this scheme, data that was stored last should be the one to be extracted first. This also means that in order to gain access to the first data, all the other data that was stored before this first data must first be retrieved and extracted. A queue is a data structure that can simulate a list or stream of data.
In this structure, new elements are inserted at one end, and existing elements are removed from the other end.
A binary tree is one type of data structure that has two nodes, a left node, and a right node. In programming, binary trees are an extension of the linked list structures. Recursion, is a function that calls itself based on a terminating condition, makes use of the stack. Using LIFO, a call to a recursive function saves the return address so that it knows how to return to the calling function after the call terminates.
A stack is a data structure in which only the top element can be accessed. As data is stored in the stack, each data is pushed downward, leaving the most recently added data on top. A binary search tree stores data in such a way that they can be retrieved very efficiently.
Moreover, both subtrees are also binary search trees. Multidimensional arrays make use of multiple indexes to store data. It is useful when storing data that cannot be represented using single dimensional indexing, such as data representation in a board game, tables with data stored in more than one column.
It depends on where you intend to apply linked lists. If you based it on storage, a linked list is considered non-linear. On the other hand, if you based it on access strategies, then a linked list is considered linear. Apart from being able to store simple structured data types, dynamic memory allocation can combine separately allocated structured blocks to form composite structures that expand and contract as needed.
Data has been inserted into the queue list the longest is the one that is removed first. Merge sort, is a divide-and-conquer approach for sorting the data. In a sequence of data, adjacent ones are merged and sorted to create bigger sorted lists. These sorted lists are then merged again to form an even bigger sorted list, which continues until you have one single sorted list. Null is a value, whereas Void is a data type identifier. A variable that is given a Null value indicates an empty value.
The void is used to identify pointers as having no initial size. A linked list is an ideal data structure because it can be modified easily. This means that editing a linked list works regardless of how many elements are in the list. Pushing and popping applies to the way data is stored and retrieved in a stack. On the other hand, a pop denotes data retrieval, and in particular, refers to the topmost data being accessed.
A linear search refers to the way a target key is being searched in a sequential data structure.
In this method, each element in the list is checked and compared against the target key. The process is repeated until found or if the end of the file has been reached. The amount of memory to be allocated or reserved would depend on the data type of the variable being declared. For example, if a variable is declared to be of integer type, then 32 bits of memory storage will be reserved for that variable.
The heap is more flexible than the stack. However, the memory of the heap can at times be slower when compared to that stack. A postfix expression is an expression in which each operator follows its operands. The advantage of this form is that there is no need to group sub-expressions in parentheses or to consider operator precedence.
Data abstraction is a powerful tool for breaking down complex data problems into manageable chunks. This is applied by initially specifying the data objects involved and the operations to be performed on these data objects without being overly concerned with how the data objects will be represented and stored in memory.
Assuming that the data to be inserted is a unique value that is, not an existing entry in the tree , check first if the tree is empty. The selection sort is a fairly intuitive sorting algorithm, though not necessarily efficient. In this process, the smallest element is first located and switched with the element at subscript zero, thereby placing the smallest element in the first position. The smallest element remaining in the subarray is then located next to subscripts 1 through n-1 and switched with the element at subscript 1, thereby placing the second smallest element in the second position.
The steps are repeated in the same manner till the last element. In the case of signed numbers, the first bit is used to indicate whether positive or negative, which leaves you with one bit short. With unsigned numbers, you have all bits available for that number. A binary tree can have a minimum of zero nodes, which occurs when the nodes have NULL values.
Furthermore, a binary tree can also have 1 or 2 nodes. Dynamic data structures are structures that expand and contract as a program runs.
It provides a flexible means of manipulating data because it can adjust according to the size of the data. Pointers that are used in linked list have various applications in the data structure.
Most declarations do, with the exemption of pointers. Pointer declaration does not allocate memory for data, but for the address of the pointer variable. Actual memory allocation for the data comes during run-time.
When dealing with arrays, data is stored and retrieved using an index that refers to the element number in the data sequence. This means that data can be accessed in any order. In programming, an array is declared as a variable having a number of indexed elements. The minimum number of queues needed in this case is two. One queue is intended for sorting priorities while the other queue is used for actual storage of data. There are many types of sorting algorithms: Not one can be considered the fastest because each algorithm is designed for a particular data structure and data set.
It would depend on the data set that you would want to sort. Stack follows a LIFO pattern. It means that data access follows a sequence wherein the last data to be stored when the first one to be extracted. Arrays, on the other hand, does not follow a particular order and instead can be accessed by referring to the indexed element within the array. A dequeue is a double-ended queue. This is a structure wherein elements can be inserted or removed from either end. A bubble sort is one sorting technique that can be applied to data structures such as an array.
It works by comparing adjacent elements and exchanges their values if they are out of order. A linked list typically has two parts: Between the head and tail lie the actual nodes.
All these nodes are linked sequentially. Selection sort works by picking the smallest number from the list and placing it at the front. This process is repeated for the second position towards the end of the list.
It is the simplest sort algorithm. A graph is one type of data structure that contains a set of ordered pairs. These ordered pairs are also referred to as edges or arcs and are used to connect nodes where data can be stored and retrieved. The linear data structure is a structure wherein data elements are adjacent to each other.
Examples of linear data structure include arrays, linked lists, stacks, and queues. On the other hand, a non-linear data structure is a structure wherein each data element can connect to more than two adjacent data elements. Examples of nonlinear data structure include trees and graphs. An AVL tree is a type of binary search tree that is always in a state of partially balanced. The balance is measured as a difference between the heights of the subtrees from the root.
This self-balancing tree was known to be the first data structure to be designed as such. Doubly linked lists are a special type of linked list wherein traversal across the data elements can be done in both directions. This is made possible by having two links in every node, one that links to the next node and another one that connects to the previous node. It makes use of a table that contains the frequency of occurrence for each data element.
Fibonacci search is a search algorithm that applies to a sorted array. It makes use of a divide-and-conquer approach that can significantly reduce the time needed in order to reach the target element. Recursive algorithm targets a problem by dividing it into smaller, manageable sub-problems. The output of one recursion after processing one sub-problem becomes the input to the next recursive process.
To find the target key in a linked list, you have to apply sequential search. Each node is traversed and compared with the target key, and if it is different, then it follows the link to the next node. This traversal continues until either the target key is found or if the last node is reach. To implement singly linked list and performing insert, delete and search operations.
Allot memory dynamically for a node and declare it as a header H. To create a singly linked lists get the element N and allot memory for a node S1. Repeat the above two steps for all the elements. A node can be inserted at the front, in the middle or at the end of the list. To insert a node X after the specified node Y, travel the list till the node Y is reached.
A node can be deleted at the front, in the middle or at the end of the list. To search an element E traverse the list until E is found. Singly Linked List 1.
Display 3. Do u want to enter more elements? Create 2. Thus the singly linked list is implemented and insert, delete and search operations are performed And verified. To write a C program to implement a double ended queue dequeue with all possible operations on it. Read choices. If queue is not full, add items at front or back. And increment top value by 1.
If Queue is not empty, delete items at front or back. And decrement top value by 1. Display the queue items. End of the program. Thus the C program for Double ended queue is implemented and insertion, deletion on both ends is done successfully.
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Implementation of Binary Trees and operations of Binary Trees 6. Implementation of AVL Trees 8. Graph representation and Traversal algorithms Applications of Graphs Implementation of searching and sorting algorithms At the end of the course, the students will be able 1. Write functions to implement linear and non-linear data structure operations 2. A Stack ADTs 1. B Queue ADTs 2.
Linked list implementation of Queue ADTs 4. Implementation of Polynomial ADT 4. Conversion of Infix into Postfix Expression 5. Graph representation 9. The student should be made to: At the end of the course, the student should be able to 1. STEP 1: Define an array to store the element. STEP 2: STEP 3: If the option is 1 perform creation operation and goto step4.
If the option is 2 perform insertion operation and goto step5. If the option is 3 perform deletion operation and goto step6. If the option is 4 perform display operation and goto step7.
If not fetch the element from the position which is denoted by top pointer and decrement the top pointer by one STEP 7: STEP 8: To write a program for Queue using array implementation. To write a program for List using array implementation. To write a C program for stack ADT using linked list implementation. To write a C program for Queue using Linked implementation. Please try again Get an infix expression. Scan the expression from left to right. If any operands come display it.
If the incoming operator has less priority than the stack symbol then copy the symbol at the top of the stack and then print until the condition becomes false and push the following operator on the stack.
Deletion opening parenthesis is from top of the stack.
Stop the process. To write a C program to implementation of binary search tree. The tree is now balanced. State Action A node has been inserted into the left subtree of the right subtree. However, in the more commonly-used heap type, there are at most 2 children of a node and it's known as a Binary heap An array can be used to simulate a tree in the following way.
Initialize all necessary variables and functions. Read the choices. For insertion, read the element to be inserted. If root is NULL, assign the given element as root. Else insert right side of the root. For deletion, get the priority for maximum or minimum. If maximum, it deletes the root and rearranges the tree. If minimum, it deletes the leaf. To write a C program implement adjacent matrix and adjacency list. The adjacency matrix for the above example graph is: Create a graph with getting no.
Implement adjacency matrix 3.