by Dr. 'Ali Muhammad as-Sallâbi. The second caliph of Islam, 'Umar ibn al- Khattâb faced more struggles than any other Muslim leader in the. The Rightly Guided Caliphs (2). 'Umar ibn al-Khattgb.. His Life and Times. VOLUME T W O. Dr. 'Ali Muhammad as-Sallabi. Translated by. Nasiruddin al- Khattab. WHO REALLY WAS THE MOTHER OF `OMAR IBN AL-KHATTAB?! By Yasin T. al-Jibouri The following text is excerpted from my translation of the book titled.
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'Umar ibn al-Khattfb.. His Life and Times. VOLUME ONE. Dr. 'Ali Muhammad as- Sallabi. Translated by. Nasiruddin al-Khattab. Kalamullah. Umar bin Khattab was a close friend of the Prophet Muhammad that did . As- Suyuti Abdurahman bin AbuBakar,Date rashidun pdfpp. 3. Umar ibn Al-Khattab in the Pre-Islamic Society. 4. Converting to Islam. 5. His Migration to Madinah. 7. Selected Instances of Umar's Biography. 7. Revelation of.
Hence, Umar may Allah be pleased with him , fell down bleeding copiously. The Companions consulted one another, each of them trying to refuse the position of Caliph for himself and seeking it for his brother whom he thought was fit and qualified for it. What gives you the right or which status permits you to invite the people to swear the oath of allegiance to you? As for us, we have been soiled by the world inside-out. DarTuweik, Riyadh. This was achieved when Abu Bakr asked the people to look themselves for a successor to take the reins of leadership after he died.
He was keen to attend the great fairs of the Arabs, such as Ukaz, Mijannah and Dhu al-Majaz, where he would make the most of the opportunity to engage in trade and learn the history of the Arabs, and the battles and contests that had taken place among the tribes.
Besides, he engaged in trade and profited, which made him one of the rich men of Makkah. He became acquainted with many people in the countries that he visited for the purpose of trade. He travelled to Syria in the summer and Yemen in the winter. Thus, he occupied a prominent position in Makkan society during the pre-lslamic era, and played an effective role in shaping events. He was - 4 - assisted by the outstanding history of his forefathers. His grandfather Nufayl ibn Abdul-Uzza was one to whom Quraysh referred their disputes for judgment, and his ancestor Kaab was held in high esteem by the Arabs.
They had recorded their history from the year of his death until the event of the Elephant. Umar inherited this status from his forefathers which brought him a great deal of knowledge about the life and circumstances of the Arabs, in addition to his own smartness and intelligence.
Umar may Allah be pleased with him was wise, eloquent, well spoken, strong, tolerant, noble, persuasive and clear of speech, which made him qualified to be an ambassador for Quraysh, to speak up for them before the other tribes. Ibn al- Jawzi said: If there was a war between Quraysh and another tribe, they would send him as an ambassador, and if another tribe was boasting against them, they would send him to respond in kind, and they were pleased with him Ibn Al-Jawzi, Umar lived during the pre-lslamic era and knew it inside out.
He knew its true nature, its customs and traditions, and he defended it with all the power he possessed. Therefore, when he entered Islam he understood its beauty and true nature, and he recognized the great difference between guidance and misguidance, disbelief and faith, truth and falsehood, and he spoke his famous words: Converting to Islam The first ray of the light of faith that touched his heart came on when he saw the women of Quraysh leaving their homeland and travelling to a distant land because of the persecution that they were facing from Umar and other unbelievers.
His - 5 - conscious was moved, and he felt remorse and pity for them, and he spoke kind words to them which they had never expected to hear from his person beforehand Tantawi, Umm Abdullah bint Hantamh said: I said: Yes, for you have persecuted us and oppressed us, and by Allah we are going out in the land of Allah until Allah grants us a way out.
Then Umar said: And I saw kindness that I had never seen before. Umar was moved by this woman's attitude and he felt distressed. How much suffering the followers of this new religion were putting up with, but despite that they were standing firm.
What was the secret beyond this extraordinary strength? He felt sad and his heart was filled with pain Al-Sharqawi, Shortly after this incident, Umar became Muslim as a result of the prayers of the messenger Mohammad prayers and peace be upon him , which was the main reason for his acceptance of Islam. The Prophet Mohammad had prayed for him saying: And the more beloved of them to Allah was Umar Al-Tirmidhi, 1 Umar became Muslim in Dhu al-Hijjah of the sixth year of the Prophet-hood, when he was twenty-seven years old.
He accepted Islam three days after Hamzah, the Prophet's uncle. At that time the Muslims numbered thirty-nine. Umar said: When he became Muslim, he fought them until they sent us free. Then we prayed and circumambulated the Ka'bah.
We could not pray or circumambulate the House until Umar became Muslim. When he became Muslim, he fought the unbelievers until they left us alone and let us pray. Ibn Abbas may Allah be pleased with him said: When he decided to migrate, he put on his sword, put his bow over his shoulder, picked up his arrows and carried his stick. He went out to the Ka'bah, where a number of Quraysh were gathered in its courtyard, and circumambulated the House seven times, at a leisurely pace.
Then he went to the Maqam and prayed tranquilly. Then he went to the circles of people, one by one, and said to them, 'May your faces become ugly! Allah will only rub theses noses in the dust.
Whoever wants his mother to be bereft of him and his children to become orphans and his wife to become a widow, let him meet me behind this valley,' 'AM said, 'No one followed him except a few of those who were weak and oppressed. He taught them and told them about Islam, then he went on his way.
I said, 'O - 7 - Allah's Messenger! I wish that you take the station of Ibrahim as a place of prayer. The wives of the Prophet prayers and Peace be upon him gathered against him and I said to them: His Asceticism Umar may Allah be pleased with him was most humble to Allah and led an austere life. His food was very coarse and he would patch his cloth with leather. He used to carry a water skin on his shoulders in spite of his great esteem.
He used to laugh little and never joked with anyone. Engraved on his ring was: The sustenance of my family will be the equivalent of an average man of Quraish and not the rich amongst them, for I am just an ordinary man among the Muslims i.
See what the Qur'an did to the soul of these people. Return your gaze, dear readers, and see the condition of the Caliph and what was sufficient for him.
May Allah bless the right religion that groomed them and may He bless the Prophet that taught them. As for Umar, the world desired him but he never desired the world.
As for us, we have been soiled by the world inside-out. Allah has freed you from your oath of alliance to me, and your oath is no longer binding. Your affairs are in your hands, so appoint over you whomever you like. If you appoint someone whilst I am still alive, I think it is less likely that you will become divided after I am gone. The Companions consulted one another, each of them trying to refuse the position of Caliph for himself and seeking it for his brother whom he thought was fit and qualified for it.
Hence they came back to him and said: Abu Bakr wanted to tell the people himself whilst he was conscious and aware of what he was saying, so that there would be no confusion. So he looked out over the people and said to them: For by Allah I have tried to appoint the best; I have not appointed a relative. I have appointed as your leader Umar ibn al-Khattab, so listen to him and obey. He said: I fear sedition for them and I have thought long and hard about the matter.
I have appointed over them the best of them and the one who is most keen to lead them in the right way. Now here I am with Your decree about to be fulfilled. Take care of them after I am gone for they are Your salves. It may be noted that Abu Bakr's nomination of Umar ibn al- Khattab could not have made him caliph unless it was based on the consent of the majority.
This was achieved when Abu Bakr asked the people to look themselves for a successor to take the reins of leadership after he died. They put the matter back in his hands and said, we will follow your opinion. But Abu Bakr did not nominate Umar until he consulted the most prominent Companions.
He asked each one individually, and when he realized that they all agree, he announced his nomination of Umar.
So Abu Bakr's choice was based on the general opinion of the community as expressed through its most prominent figures. Nonetheless, this nomination could not make Umar the caliph except with the community's consent, as the election of the ruler is the entire right of the public, and the role of the caliph is to act as an agent on behalf of the community. His words indicate that the community is responsible to control its own affairs Al-Keelani, Hence, we see that the appointment of Umar was done in accordance with the most sound and fair principles of Consultation 'Shura'.
Umar was an expert jurist and is best known for his justice, in the same way for Muslims and non-Muslims. This value earned him the title of Al- Farooq the one who distinguishes between wright and wrong Shabaro, 1 He was the first Caliph to be nominated as "Prince of the Believers". He is the one who founded the Lunar Calendar Hijri , i. Umar is the first one who conquered Jerusalem to be within the Muslim Empire, as it is the first Qiblah and the third holiest city in Islam.
His attacks against the Sassanid Persian Empire resulted in the conquest of the Persian Empire in less than two years. His political wisdom and administrative ability were demonstrated in protecting the unity of the state in spite of its growing scope and the increasing population of varied ethnicity. The Speech Given by Umar When he Became Caliph It was reported that two days after Umar was appointed as caliph, the people started talking and saying how worried they were about his harshness punishments, so Umar realized that he had to clarify the matter himself.
He ascended the rostrum minbar and addressed them, describing how the Prophet prayers and peace be upon him and Abu Bakr had been pleased with Umar when they died. Then he said: I will not permit anyone to oppress anyone else or to transgress the rights of - others, but I will put his cheek on the ground and until he submit to the truth.
In contrast to that former harshness of mine, I will lay my own cheek on the ground before those who are humble and modest. O' people, I make some promises to you, which I will mention so that you will hold me to them.
I promise that I will not take anything of your taxes or of the booty faya 1 that Allah grants to you, except in the proper manner. I promise you that whatever I take, I will not spend it except in the proper manner.
I promise you that I will increase your stipends, if Allah wills, and I will protect your boarders. I promise you that I will not throw you into dangerous places or keep you away from your families for a long time in order to guard the boarders.
When you are away in military campaigns, I will be responsible for your children until you come back. Fear Allah O' slaves of Allah, and try to help me by keeping your evil away from me and by enjoining what is good and what is evil and by giving me sincere advice with regard to the way I am running your affairs.
I say these words of mine and I ask Allah to forgive me and you. From this speech we can perceive clearly the method that Umar followed in his rule, from which he never deviated. Do not think badly of a word spoken by your brother fellow when you can still find good ways to interpret it.
Think positively of your brother until you are certain that he is not like that. Do not swear a great deal lest Allah humiliate you. There is no better reward for one who disobeys Allah concerning you that your obeying Allah concerning him. You should seek sincere friends and maintain good relations with them, for they are a pleasure at - 12 - times of ease and a support at times of hardship.
These are well-expressed wisdom from which we may learn a great deal. PDF Volumes: His life began in a time of ignorance and ended during the Golden Age of Islam.
Under his leadership, the Muslim world was witnessing some of its most notable conquests in the history of Islam. The standards by which he lived can teach us a lot about determination, hardship, and success. This book was translated into English by Nasiruddin al-Khattab. From the Translator:. For those who would be leaders, this book offers the model of an ideal Muslim leader, one who felt responsible before Allah for the well being of all those under his rule, including his troops, women, infants, non-Muslim subjects and even animals.
For the rest of us, this book offers a window into an exciting and important period of Islamic history, and it also reminds of an important lesson, that our strength comes not from wealth or money or status, but from our submission to Allah and our commitment to the path of Islam.
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