“THE LORD OF THE RINGS' V*art One THE FELLOWSHIP OF THE RING NOTE ON THE SHIRE RECORDS At the end of the Third Age the part played by . IMAGE: SEVEN RINGS held aloft in triumph by the DWARF LORDS. GALADRIEL (V.O.) TEASING SHOTS: SAURON forging the ONE RING in the CHAMBERS of. SAMMATH NAUR My heart tells me that Gollum has some part to play yet. View and download teshimaryokan.info on DocDroid.
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being the first part of. THE LORD OF One Ring to bring them all and in the darkness bind them J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings is often erroneously. part of The Lord of the Rings. The first part, The Fellowship The Two Towers. The Lord of the Rings Part 1 The Fellowship of the Ring By JRR Tolkien. 1. What this film is about: The Lord of the Rings trilogy is based on J R R Tolkein's In the first part, we learn that Bilbo Baggins, one of the gentle, peace-loving.
All these characteristics are the territory of the trickster archetype. Because the three-volume binding was so widely distributed, the work is often referred to as the Lord of the Rings "trilogy. The trilogy is based on the book The Lord of the Rings by J. The Treason of Isengard: Auden, Tolkien himself made use of the term "trilogy" for the work The Letters of J.
In the field of psychology, Jung's theory was as revolutionary as Einstein's theory of relativity or Darwin's theory of natural selection. In order to fully comprehend the importance of Jung's theories of the psyche, it is essential to bear in mind that at the time, the theory of Tabula Rasa was the acknowledged truth With his theory on the collective unconscious, Jung introduced the notion of an innate psychic structure as the foundation for each individual psyche, an essential subjective aptitude without which the human experience could not take place: Furthermore, Jung made the differentiation between our personal unconscious and our collective unconscious and ascertained that the personal unconscious is acquired through personal experiences whereas the collective unconscious is acquired through heredity.
Brunner-Routledge, p. These archetypical forms function as components of the collective unconscious, each defining a different aspect of our inherited unconscious psyche. However revolutionary the hypothesis of the archetypes was in the early 20 th century, the notion of general mental ideas or forms can be traced back to Plato, who viewed these mental forms as general to all humans in an intellectual sense.
Jung, on the other hand, believed that archetypes were not merely intellectual constructs but rather biological entities which manifest in the individual.
Archetypes can thus be seen as a sort of psychological DNA, a living system of reactions and potentiality connected to the individual through the vehicle of emotion Our inherent emotional responses to the situations we find ourselves in, are thus a clue towards which archetype is dominant at any given moment, since our link to the archetypes is one of emotion.
Furthermore, archetypes contain numen17 and function through activation of Cryptomnesia18, in which a thought or connotations from something previously experienced, reappears in the psyche as if it was completely new.
The potential expression of numen can be realised in the conscious by suitable symbols, which are to be found in mythology, art, religion and dreams The Self It is the totality of 15 Jung, CW 3 London: Thames and Hudson Ltd, p. Thus, according to Jung, it is from the conscious part of the core-self that the ego21 evolves and develops after birth. However, in order to repress aspects of self which are deemed unacceptable in family and society, our ego develops an aspect of itself, whose job it is to aid the individual in being socially acceptable, and so the super-ego22 is formed.
Both the ego and super-ego are necessary psychological elements, enabling the individual to adapt into the values and norms of the society in which he or she is born. It is an impossible task for the ego to incorporate and express the totality of self; many aspects of the self are simply unacceptable in society and within our family circle and are consequently relegated to the Shadow, where they will remain a latent force in the subconscious.
In light of John Bowlby's attachment theories 24 it is highly likely that it is the child's fear of abandonment that prompts our need to repress our socially unacceptable parts of self. The fear that mother will find some part of us unacceptable, thus leading to abandonment, is in likeness to the fear of death as being abandoned as an infant will most likely lead to death and a major force in the unconscious.
As a defence- mechanism against abandonment, our superego develops and moulds itself into an 21 That part of the mind which is most conscious of self; spec. It is this defence-mechanism that enables us to live in a society that relies on mutual trust and collaboration, thus making it possible for us to have trust in others and take part in meaningful relationships.
However, in order to be able to create this acceptable version of our true self, it is necessary for us to repress a large part of our nature and consciousness. This layer of unconsciousness where our repressed and less civilised part of the psyche dwells, is what Jung coined as being our shadow Thus, it is unavoidable for any individual to be in the world as a complete incarnation of self, as we are all subjected to the life-long struggle of balancing the needs of our ego with the urges and desires of our self.
In the words of Jung: In order to fully comprehend the polarized psyche as it is expressed individually and collectively, we must include into the discussion the archetype of shadow. Jung's construct of the shadow consists of aspects of our rejected self which are delegated to our unconscious psyche. Shadow is a central and universal archetype which has been personified in literature through countless destructive and malevolent characters. However, the archetypal shadow figure is not necessarily of a destructive nature.
It is not only possible but credible to find the shadow archetype in likeable characters such as J. Rowling's incredibly popular Harry Potter. In the series the protagonist Harry Potter is deemed socially inferior by his foster family, who collectively project their shadow onto him, keeping him hidden in his room, repressed.
This is the key to the archetype of shadow, it is the part of self that is kept hidden, repressed and unconscious. We have to abandon the romantic dream that evil, conflict and aggression can be 25 Stevens, Archetype Revisited, London: In analytical psychology it is the process occurring by degrees over the lifespan whereby an individual achieves wholeness through the integration of consciousness and the collective unconscious, and it is symbolized by the mandala.
In a key passage, Carl Gustav Jung described it as follows: It is a blind abdication of the moral sense to conceive evil as always 'outside' i.
There are multitudes of examples in history where a nation or race has projected its own shadow onto another nation or race. This inability to accept and acknowledge our own shadow, leads us to see it in others. It is a self-defence mechanism that is innate and unconscious and is the main cause of all major collective and individual conflicts, from office gossip to wars and genocide.
Consequently projection and rationalization often go hand in hand, thus in order to justify cruelty against those we project against, rationalization is the most commonly used weapon.
By finding intellectual reasons why it is acceptable or even necessary to punish or kill others, we are able to liberate ourselves of guilt, remorse and empathy, thereby repeating the cycle. In order to become aware of shadow, we must realise what it is that attracts us to it, in other words, we must become able to resist temptation and achieve a higher degree of integrity.
This component is key, not only in terms of individuation, but also in the Catholic faith to which Tolkien was deeply devoted.
The Catholic notion that in order to resist evil one must be able to resist ones own desires, is one that Tolkien uses as a theme throughout The Lord of the Rings. This central idea in the trilogy is exemplified by the ability or inability of the protagonists to resist temptation. We find that those characters who represent a higher level of consciousness and have successfully undertaken their personal individuation process such as Gandalf, Galadriel and later Aragorn are able to resist the temptation of the One Ring where others who have not yet fulfilled their quest for individuation such as Frodo, Gollum, Boromir and Saruman can not.
Our shadow holds the key to our understanding the totality our self, which is the first step towards resolving inner and outer conflicts. Through the acknowledgement and acceptance of our shadow, we can hope to understand our enemies and with this understanding of self and the other, peace has the opportunity of becoming a real possibility. One of the striking elements in The Lord of the Rings which points towards a literary interpretation of a Jungian model of the psyche, is the archetypical nature of all major characters we encounter throughout the story.
The journey of transformation takes us through different stages of awareness and consciousness, with it's starting point in the familiar conscious state the Shire through to the deepest and darkest corners of the unconscious, symbolised by Mordor. As we follow Sam and Frodo through Middle-earth, we find that their journey through unknown landscapes, mirrors the exploration of of the unconscious by the ego.
Thus each new area of the unknown that the hobbits must transgress, is marked by different landscapes and inhabitants.
In particular the number four seems to bear special significance as we encounter four rivers and fours forests. If we accept the theory that the hobbits are symbolic of our ego and consciousness, then their journey through to Mordor becomes a description of the expansion of consciousness, a mystical journey of individuation.
Furthermore, as we follow Frodo's journey from the Shire, through Middle- earth and into Mordor, we encounter different aspects of our psyche in the archetypical characters that we meet. Each one of these characters marks a stage in the evolution of Frodo's consciousness. The first archetype we encounter is the spirit archetype represented by Gandalf.
It is at this time that Frodo becomes the possessor of the One Ring which brings with it the enormous power of the shadow. Thus, it is no coincidence that Frodo's individuation process starts with his adherence of the One Ring and develops as he encounters different archetypical figures on his journey.
On the outer edges of the Shire, we meet the trickster archetype in the form of Tom Bombadil. This meeting marks the crossing of the first threshold into the unknown and the beginning of adventure. As the journey continues, Frodo meets the hero archetype in the guise of Aragorn who he befriends at The Prancing Pony. As we follow the fellowship's journey towards Mordor, the shadow aspects become stronger and more pronounced occurring in many different physical forms such as the Ring Wraiths, goblins, orcs, Uruk-hai and other proponents for shadow.
Furthermore, we find that the nine members of the fellowship are matched by their collective shadow consisting of the nine Ring Wraiths, whose faceless figures represent their loss of self. Whereas each of the members in the fellowship have distinct personalities, the nine Ring Wraiths are lost to themselves and are in complete servitude to Sauron. The shadow archetypes are numerous but it is Gollum in particular who has the deepest effect on Frodo as he is the living embodiment of what Frodo is most afraid of becoming.
Just as Frodo has his personal shadow in Gollum, so do most of the major protagonists in the story. Each archetype is represented in their positive as well as negative form, thus each archetypical figure has a shadow self to conquer in order to achieve individuation. Some of the prominent archetypical figures we encounter are: The anima represented by Galadriel as the positive aspect and Shelob as the negative.
The hero which is portrayed by Aragon as the positive aspect and the King of the Dead as the negative aspect.
The archetype of spirit is represented by Gandalf and his shadow Saruman and finally the archetype of self which refers to wholeness and is equivalent to the God image , the negative aspect of which is represented by the One Ring and its master Sauron. The positive aspect of self is somewhat more ambivalent and difficult to pin-point with a high degree of certainty.
Due to the strong allusion to Jesus in the characters of Frodo and Aragorn who both risk their lives for the good of the greater whole , it could be argued that they both are representatives of the positive aspect of self. However, it is also possible to interpret Gandalf the White as a representation of the integrated self, in particular in view of his resurrection and role as a guide. Thus The Lord of the Rings is a literary work so full of archetypes that one could be tempted to think that Tolkien had in depth knowledge of Jung's work, however there are no direct indications in Tolkien's work or history to sustain the hypothesis that Tolkien studied any of Jung's 29 In analytical psychology, the feminine principle as represented in the male unconscious, an archetype 2 forming part of the collective unconscious, representing the feminine aspect of human nature, characterized by imagination, fantasy, and play, manifesting itself in personified form in dreams and fantasies, and acting as a psychopomp connecting the ego and the unconscious.
Knowledge, Rule, Order; all the things ted to his Ring had I taken it by force or by threatening that we struggle in vain to achieve, more disturbed than my guest? In place of the Dark Lord you will set up a Queen.
It is precisely due to the rising power and the per- And I shall not be dark, but beautiful and terrible as the Morning and the Night! Fair as the Sea and the Sun and ception of the lack of hope that Saruman engenders the Snow upon the Mountain! Dreadful as the Storm his betrayal.
Symbolism in oneiric level is expressed and the Lightning! All shall love me and despair! It is precisely through the dream of a light shone that enlightened her only, leaving all else being considered to be wise that Evil settles in. Here is dark. She stood before Frodo and now seemed imme- the corruption of the One Ring. Then she let her hand fall, and the location. He is arrested, and then set free, meeting light vanished; and suddenly she laughed again and she with the Council of the free peoples.
Gal- penetrate into Mordor, to secretly reach the furnaces adriel is so ancient and powerful that her psyche where the One Ring was made, the only place where could really change the foundations of the earth, even it could be destroyed. In Lorien, the magic land of the Elves, the adriel would have if she had the One Ring. It would retinue rests after a long journey. What could of time and space.
At a cosmic level, no one could not Aragorn do? Or if he refuses, why not Boromir? How I would Galadriel. This time Boromir tries to steal Ring presents itself as the symbol of Evil. Is it not a strange fate that we should suffer so much fear and doubt for so small a thing?
So small a in his dreams, in his psyche. Could I not have sight of it again? Suddenly his heart froze. He members. You seem to be always thinking only of Ricoeur: The world is changing, you as the conceptualization of this symbolic level states.
Minas Tirith21 will perish if the Ring lasts. But why? It In the three scenes, the oneiric, as a psychic reverie, is would surely be so if the Ring was with the enemy. For themsel- ves they may be right. These Elves and half-Elves and tion, about its symbols and myths. For such, it is also Wizards, they would come to grief perhaps. Plato and mostly Saint Augustine has his own way. We do not desire the power stand the literature of The Lord of the Rings.
Tolkien, an academician in Philology, Lin- strength in a just cause. And behold! It is a gift, I say; integrates his historical moment of reaction to moder- a gift to the foes of Mordor.
It is mad not to use it, to use the power of the enemy against him. The fearless, the nity, of discussion on industrialization and its changes ruthless, these alone will achieve victory. All that with a clear symbolic object in true God, and held the worship of any other persons an the narrative: The craving for eternity, which Tolkien evaluates Sauron desired to be a God-King, and was held to be as the basis of his work, appears here.
In his sub-cre- this by his servants; if he had been victorious he would ation of a secondary world with secondary beliefs, have demanded divine honor from all rational creatu- he ascribes to the First Creator every response to af- res and absolute temporal power over the whole world. God is the only reality he saw in his history.
And ism, soldier in the World War I, war correspondent in this God reveals himself from the simplest values, World War II, father of a priest, a soldier, and an aca- such as friendship, honor, and respect. Researcher of the truth, he found in a re- enable oneself to live in the simplicity of work and in mote past as a researcher of the Middle Ages, the eter- fraternal and familiar company, like the Hobbits and nity that surpassed the instantaneousness of his time.
As a matter of less often considered petition. The view, in the terms fact, the psalmist did not baselessly say, or with little of my story, is that though every event or situation has affection: Braga, Editorial Fran- endurance far beyond the normal — even, it may ha- ciscana, Defending Middle-Earth — Tolkien: London, any choice he could make or would make unfettered, not under the duress.
Explicando Tolkien. Actually, the symbol of the One Fontes, The Symbolism of Evil. In a Press, O Hobbit. The Fontes, Contos Inacabados. O Silmarillion. As cartas de J. Tolkien was an Anglo-Sa- xon language professor considered one of the major Version by Carlos Manuel Miranda Leite da Silva experts on the subject at Oxford, from to , and English and Literature professor at the same univer- Notes sity from to Elves, Dwarves around 1 meter to 1.
Hobbits were peaceful and Men. I think this was partly your own view, was it not? What we badly need is another book with which to follow up our success with The Hobbit and alas! I still hope that you will be inspired to write another book about the Hobbit. If Tolkien was not too pleased about the rejection of The Silmarillion a different version from the one we have now , he still saw that a Hobbit sequel would be a better commercial proposition: So he wrote back to Unwin on December 16 , Letters 19 th I think it is plain I promise to give this thought and attention.
But I am sure you will sympathize when I say that the construction of elaborate and consistent mythology and two languages rather occupies the mind, and the Silmarils are in my heart.
So that goodness knows what will happen. And what more can hobbits do?
They can be comic, but their comedy is suburban unless it is set against things more elemental. But the real fun about orcs and dragons to my mind was before their time.